Michael Mateas


Jury Member:



Art Works:



Writings and Presentations:


Title: A Preliminary Poetics for Interactive Drama and Games
Writing Type: Paper
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space
Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

Interactive drama has been discussed for a number of years as a new AI-based interactive experience.’·’ While there has been substantial technical progress in building believable agents3•4•6 and some technical progress in interactive plot,16 no work has yet been completed that combines plot and character into a full-fledged dramatic experience. The game industry has been producing plot-based interactive experiences (adventure games) since the beginning of the industry, but only a few of them (such as “The Last Express”) begin to approach the status of interactive drama. Part of the difficulty in achieving interactive drama is due to the lack of a theoretical framework guiding the exploration of the technological and design issues surrounding interactive drama. This paper proposes a theory of interactive drama based on Aristotle’s dramatic theory but modified to address the interactivity added by player agency. This theory both provides design guidance for interactive dramatic experiences that attempt to maximize player agency (answering the question “What should I build?”) and technical direction for the Al work necessary to build the system (answering the question “How should I build it?”). In addition to clarifying notions of interactive drama, the model developed in this paper also provides a general framework for analyzing player agency in any interactive experience (e.g., interactive games).

This neo-Aristotelian theory integrates Murray’s” proposed aesthetic categories for interactive stories and Aristotle’s structural categories for drama.’ The theory borrows from Laurel’s treatment of Aristotle in an interactive context’·’ but extends it by situating Murray’s category of agency within the model; the new model provides specific design guidelines for maximizing user agency. First, I will give the definition of interactive drama that motivates this theory and situate this definition with respect to other notions of interactive story. Next, I will present Murray’s three categories of immersion, agency, and transformation. Then I will present a model of Aristotle’s categories, relating them in terms of formal and material causation. Within this model, agency will be situated as two new causal chains inserted at the level of character. Finally, I will use the resulting model to clarify conceptual and technical issues involved in building interactive dramatic worlds and briefly describe a current project informed by this model.

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Title: Expressive AI
Writing Type: Paper
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2000: Art Gallery
Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

The field of Artificial Intelligence (Al) has produced a rich set of technical practices and interpretive conventions for building machines whose behavior can be narrated as intelligent activity. Artists have begun to incorporate Al practices into cultural production – into the production of artifacts and experiences that function as art within the cultural field. In this paper, I describe my own practice of Al-based cultural production: expressive Al. I will attempt to provide a preliminary understanding of this practice by both situating expressive Al with respect to other discourses on Al and by working inductively from my own Al-based art work. I will first provide a brief description of three of my Al-based art pieces. These will serve as concrete examples to ground the rest of the discussion. I will then describe the expressive Al practice by first situating it with respect to the GOFAl/interactionist Al debate, then by describing the central organizing metaphors of authorial and interpretive affordance, and finally by providing a preliminary set of desiderata for expressive Al practice.

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