Papers



Title: (Projection) Mapping The Brain: A Critical Cartographic Approach To The Artist's Use Of FMRI To Study The Contemplation Of Death.
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

Production of life-sized self-portrait comprising digital animations and live action video projection-mapped onto a 3D print from MRI data gathered as the artist viewed memento mori paintings and meditated on death.


Title: 5 Story Building
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

A mischievous Monster, a naive Sidekick, ten shallow Girls, a retired Villain, an apathetic Robot, and a Megalomaniac from outer space live under one roof in the “5 Story Building”. Five simultaneous stories tell the lives of the singular occupants of this confining building. These neighbors carry on with their own ambitions and inherited craziness without realizing that their stories are intertwined in this episodic interactive fiction.

Jean Paul Sartre and “Sleep No More” inspire this experience for digital tablets that explores the nuances and opportunities enabled by the introduction of interactivity in storytelling.

“5 Story Building” is intentionally crafted to show off things that traditional media cannot. This project explores the possibility of multiple simultaneous stories that are part of a bigger plot. These stories develop regardless if they are seen or not: the users’ decisions are not only about what they sees but also, and maybe most importantly, what they decide not to see.

Multiple readings are necessary and voyeurism is encouraged.

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Title: A Brief History of SIGGRAPH Art Exhibitions: Brave New Worlds
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

In 1981, The Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics (ACM/SIGGRAPH) sponsored its first exhibition of computer art in conjunction with the annual conference on computer graphics. The 1989 Art Show will be the ninth SIGGRAPH exhibition of computer-aided art. The present effort can not be understood fully without examining the background and scope of previous exhibitions. During this short history SIGGRAPH Art Shows have become important to computer artists since they are the major sites for the exhibition of new work.

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Title: A New System to Appreciate the Visual Characteristics of a Painting
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

A painting-viewing system is proposed as a tool to help painting appreciation and to improve the museum experience. This system simultaneously highlights certain visual characteristics of multiple paintings, thus informing users of the links between paintings and the semantic elements that may appear superficially different, and also conveying the art-historical explanation of those characteristics. Through this system’s evaluation, the approach based on “the awareness of the visual characteristics” may be effective as a method of developing the user’s interest in the paintings. When this system is placed in museums and galleries as a mediation tool, it will be useful to a viewer’s preparation for the art-viewing experience. This paper presents the concepts behind the system’s development and the results of the first survey as a piece of a larger project to explore the improvement of painting appreciation as a museum experience.

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Title: A Piece of the Pie Chart: Feminist Robotics
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper analyzes the robotic gallery installation A Piece of the Pie Chart. The project addresses gender inequity in the tech world. It consists of a computer workstation and a food robot. The food robot puts pie charts onto edible, pre-baked pies. They depict the gender gap in technical environments. Visitors use the robot to create pies. Pictures of the pies are disseminated via Twitter, and the physical pies are mailed to the places where the data originated. In the following text, the author disassembles the machine in the context of feminist theory, feminist technology research, visualization, and political robotics.

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Title: A Preliminary Poetics for Interactive Drama and Games
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

Interactive drama has been discussed for a number of years as a new AI-based interactive experience.’·’ While there has been substantial technical progress in building believable agents3•4•6 and some technical progress in interactive plot,16 no work has yet been completed that combines plot and character into a full-fledged dramatic experience. The game industry has been producing plot-based interactive experiences (adventure games) since the beginning of the industry, but only a few of them (such as “The Last Express”) begin to approach the status of interactive drama. Part of the difficulty in achieving interactive drama is due to the lack of a theoretical framework guiding the exploration of the technological and design issues surrounding interactive drama. This paper proposes a theory of interactive drama based on Aristotle’s dramatic theory but modified to address the interactivity added by player agency. This theory both provides design guidance for interactive dramatic experiences that attempt to maximize player agency (answering the question “What should I build?”) and technical direction for the Al work necessary to build the system (answering the question “How should I build it?”). In addition to clarifying notions of interactive drama, the model developed in this paper also provides a general framework for analyzing player agency in any interactive experience (e.g., interactive games).

This neo-Aristotelian theory integrates Murray’s” proposed aesthetic categories for interactive stories and Aristotle’s structural categories for drama.’ The theory borrows from Laurel’s treatment of Aristotle in an interactive context’·’ but extends it by situating Murray’s category of agency within the model; the new model provides specific design guidelines for maximizing user agency. First, I will give the definition of interactive drama that motivates this theory and situate this definition with respect to other notions of interactive story. Next, I will present Murray’s three categories of immersion, agency, and transformation. Then I will present a model of Aristotle’s categories, relating them in terms of formal and material causation. Within this model, agency will be situated as two new causal chains inserted at the level of character. Finally, I will use the resulting model to clarify conceptual and technical issues involved in building interactive dramatic worlds and briefly describe a current project informed by this model.

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Title: A Transformational Object: Artistic Authorship and the Phenomenal Aesthetics of New Media
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

If there is any metaphor that has come to act as a signpost of current developments in the realm of digital art and design, it is the blur. We have seen the blur as a building, the blur as the theme at conferences, and the blur as a means to describe the totality of the overlapping processes and intentions that all converge in what can be called interactive experiences. For shorthand, we call this convergence new media. Given the various aims and contexts from which the larger category of art objects arrives, the blur seems to best approximate a still undistinguished body of work and its cultural momentum.

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Title: A-me: Augmented Memories
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

A-me is a fictitious memory-evoking apparatus at the intersection of science, art and technology. The system enables users to experience other people’s memories as well as store their own by interacting with a volumetric representation (MR) of a human brain. The user retrieves or stores memories (audio traces) by pointing and clicking at precise voxels locations. Triggered by their exploratory action, a story is slowly revealed and recomposed in the form of whispering voices revealing intimate stories. A-me it’s a public receptacle for private memories, thus exploring the possibility of a collective physical brain.

The installation introduces an original optical see-through AR setup for neuronavigation capable of overlaying a volume rendered MR scan onto a physical dummy head. Implementing such a system also forced us to address technical questions on quality assessment of AR systems for brain visualization.

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Title: Aesthetics of Biocybernetic Designs: A Systems Approach to Biorobots and Its Implications for the Environment
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

The authors identify some of the theoretical premises of biocybernetic art objects, with reference to the works of Nam June Paik, Edward Ihnawitz, Ulrike Gabriel, and most notably, Gilberto Esparza, the Mexican biocybernetic artist. Systems theory anticipates stochastic convergences in nature, defying the classic certitude of the teleological notion of form. Evidence for this paradigmatic shift is found in the biocybernetic creatures conceived by these roboticists. In much biocybernetic art, beauty emerges in the form of adaptive mechanisms, such as in robotic tetrapods or self-organizing artificial plants. Such structures provide a template for survival mechanisms in an increasingly entropic environment.

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Title: Alienating the Familiar with CGI: A Recipe for Making a Full CGI Art House Animated Feature
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper is an exploration of the processes used and ideas behind an animated full CGI feature lm project that attempts to reach blockbuster production values, while retaining Art House sensibilities. It examines methods used to achieve these production values in an academic production environment and ways costs can be minimized while high quality levels are retained. It also examines the lm’s status as an Art House project, by comparing its narrative design and use of symbolism to existing works of Art House cinema.

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Title: Art and Code: The Aesthetic Legacy of Aldo Giorgini
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2011: Tracing Home in The Age of Networked Techniques
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

In 1975 Aldo Giorgini developed a software program in FORTRAN called FIELDS, a numerical visual laboratory devoted entirely to art production. Working extensively as both artist and scientist, Giorgini was one of the first computer artists to combine software writing with early printing technologies, leaving an aesthetic legacy in the field of the digital arts. His individual process was innovative in that it consisted of producing pen-plotted drawings embellished by the artist’s hand with painting, drawing, and screen-printing. This paper is the product of a multi-year study of Giorgini’s primary source materials provided by his estate. The authors examine the methods used by Giorgini during the 1970s that allowed him to create computer-aided art, in the hope that publishing this work will ensure that future generations of digital artists, technologists and scientists can be educated in Giorgini’s contribution to the history of the digital arts.

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Title: Art and the Information Revolution
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

The author expresses his opinion that new imagemaking technology is providing an interdisciplinary language and creating a requirement for generalists rather than specialists. This new technology is also initiating a paradigm shift in those disciplines that make use of it. Lack of acknowledgment of such effects, particularly in the area of higher education, could lead to significant problems that, in the longer term, could affect manufacturing industry and national economic performance. One solution is to involve practitioners of non-applied disciplines (such as fine arts and pure science and mathematics) that have already adapted to a similar paradigm change and whose perception of the new tools and techniques is likely to be less parochial and more flexible.

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Title: Art Games and Breakout: New Media Meets the American Arcade
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper explores how the interactive paradigms and interface designs of arcade classics like Breakout and Pong have been incorporated into contemporary art games and offer new possibilities for political and cultural critique.

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Title: Art in the Information Age: Technology and Conceptual Art
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

By the mid-!960s, Marshall McLuhan prophesied that electronic media were creating an increasingly interconnected global village. Such pronouncements popularized the idea that the era of machine-age technology was drawing to a close, ushering in a new era of information technology. Sensing this shift, art historian and curator K.G. Pontus Hulten organized a simultaneously nostalgic and futuristic exhibition on art and mechanical technology at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1968. The Machine: As Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age included work ranging from Leonardo Da Vinci’s 16th-century drawings of flying machines to contemporary artist-engineer collaborations that won a competition organized by Experiments in Art and Technology, Inc. (EAT).’

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Title: Articulating Media Arts Activities in Art-Science Contexts
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper discusses the conflicting expectations for media artists taking part in art-science collaborations. Despite the increasing opportunity to participate in these interdisciplinary projects, it can be unclear how media arts activities are best articulated, or even if they need to be defined at all. Additionally, this paper examines a methodological framework widely used in the visualization community for identifying different visualization tasks within research activities. Inspired by its success, this paper proposes a new methodological framework for media arts activities in art-science contexts. This framework splits media arts activities into overlapping areas: generation, augmentation, provocation and mediation, providing a useful way to articulate the broader importance of media arts in interdisciplinary collaboration.

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Title: Artistic Frontiers in Virtual Reality
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1992: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

At a conference called “Inner Reality and Outer Space” sponsored by the Jung Institute in San Francisco several years ago, former astronaut Rusty Schweickort told a wonderful story. He was outside the spacecraft, the first astronaut in space without a tether-nothing but a backpack to supply air. His goal was to determine whether a person could move hand-overhand over the surface of the capsule to reenter it, and astronaut Dove Scott was to take pictures of him from inside. The camera jammed, and commander Jim McDivott gave Scott five minutes to try to fix it. For that interval, Schweickort says, he became “the world’s first unemployed astronaut.” He swung out on one arm and regarded the Earth, and at that moment he realized that he had a choice. He asked himself, “Am I going to let it in?” He did, and his life changed.

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Title: Aspects of the Aesthetics of Telecommunications
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1992: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

For the past fifteen years, increasing numbers of artists around the world have been working in a collaborative mode using telecommunications. In their “works,” which we shall refer to as “events,” images and graphics are not created as the ultimate goal or the final product, as is common in the fine arts. Employing computers, video, modems, and other devices, these artists use visuals in a much larger, interactive, bi-directional communication context. Images and graphics are created not simply to be transmitted by an artist from one point to another, but to spark a multidirectional visual dialogue with other artists and participants in remote locations. This visual dialogue assumes that images will be changed and transformed throughout the process in the same way that speech gets changed-interrupted, complemented, altered and reconfigured-in a spontaneous face-to-face conversation. Once an event is over, images and graphics stand not as the “result,” but as documentation of the process of visual dialogue promoted by the participants. This unique ongoing experimentation with images and graphics develops and expands the notion of visual thinking by relying primarily on the exchange and manipulation of visual materials as a means of communication. The art events created by telematic or telecommunication artists take place as a movement that animates and unbalances networks structured with relatively accessible interactive media such as telephone, facsimile (fax), personal computers, e-mail, and slow-scan television (SSTV). More rarely, radio, live television, videophones, satellites, and other less accessible means of communication come into play. But to identify the media employed in these “events” is not enough. Instead, one must do away with prejudices that cast off these media from the realm of “legitimate” artistic media and investigate these events as equally legitimate artistic enterprises. This essay partially surveys the history of the field and discusses art events that were either motivated by or conceived specially for telecommunications media. The essay attempts to show the transition, from the early stages, when radio provided writers and artists with a new spatiotemporal paradigm, to a second stage, in which telecommunications media, including computer networks, have become more accessible to individuals and through which artists start to create events, sometimes of global proportions, in which the communication itself becomes the work. Telecom munications art on the whole is, perhaps, a culmination of the process of dematerialization of the art object epitomized by Duchamp and pursued by artists associated with the conceptual art movement, such as Joseph Kossuth. If now the object is totally eliminated and the artists are absent as well, the aesthetic debate finds itself beyond action as form, beyond idea as art. It founds itself in the relationships and interactions between members of a network.

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Title: Augmented Fauna and Glass Mutations: A dialogue Between Material and Technique in Glassblowing and 3D Printing
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

3D printing allows unprecedented freedom in the design and manufacturing of even the most geometric complex forms—seemingly through a simple click of a button. In comparison, the making of glass is an analogue craftsmanship, coordinating an intricate interplay of individual tools and personal skills, giving shape to a material during the short time of its temperature-based plasticity. The two artworks discussed in this article, Augmented Fauna and Glass Mutations, were created during the artist’s residence at the Pilchuck Glass School and articulate a synthesis between digital work ows and traditional craft processes to establish a digital craftsmanship.

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Title: Autoencoding Blade Runner: Reconstructing Films with Artificial Neural Networks
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

In this paper, the authors explain how they created Blade Runner—Autoencoded, a film made by training an autoencoder—a type of generative neural network—to recreate frames from the film Blade Runner. The autoencoder is made to reinterpret every individual frame, reconstructing it based on its memory of the film. The result is a hazy, dreamlike version of the original film. The authors discuss how the project explores the aesthetic qualities of the disembodied gaze of the neural network and describe how the autoencoder is also capable of reinterpreting films it has not been trained on, transferring the visual style it has learned from watching Blade Runner (1982).

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Title: Avoid Setup: Insights and Implications of Generative Cinema
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

Generative artists engage the poetic and expressive potentials of film playfully and efficiently, with explicit or implicit critique of cinema in a broader cultural context. This paper looks at the incentives, insights, and implications of generative cinema, which significantly expands the creative realm for artists working with film, but also incites critical assessment of the business-oriented algorithmic strategies in the film industry. The poetic divergence, technical fluency, and conceptual cogency of generative cinema successfully demonstrate that authorship evolves toward ever more abstract reflection and cognition which equally treat existing creative achievements as inspirations, sources of knowledge, and tools.

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Title: Being Paintings
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper focuses on art created by new techniques such as cellular machines, L-Systems, genetic algorithms, neural networks … We propose here several methods of implementation combining the rules of construction of cellular machines and L-Systems with genetic, neuronal networks, couplings, translation of codes. These methods result in the morphogenesis of bodies, as well their structure (shape) and their functional aspect (neuronal networks with driving, sensory neurons, balance, etc.). It’s a part of what we can call “a new kind of art”, and we can see here how Beings Paintings emerge.

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Title: Beyond Computer Art
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

‘Computer art’ and its systems of production are criticized, and some suggestions given to make it better.

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Title: Bonsai
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1991: Art and Design Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

We are currently witnessing the end of an artistic world. Artists of tomorrow will no longer produce works but something yet to be named. They will no longer create objects but rather types of microuniverses in perpetual evolution.

These universes will be woven with uninterrupted changes, with mobile networks of lines, surfaces, forms, and forces in constant interaction, produced by the coupling of mathematics and calculators. From fractal dragons to cellular automata, from zooids to logic viruses, mathematical beings move and metamorphose in their symbolic spaces. They can change or alter the very laws by which they are constituted. They can provide the virtually autonomous substance of a new, intermediary art. The metaphor of the “symbolic bonsai” has been chosen to render the intermediary “life” of this intermediary art. Why intermediary art?

In an attempt to explain art using the words of language, even the greatest minds diverge to some extent. According to Plato, for example, art is the quest for “likelihood;” according to Hegel it aims to “reveal the truth.”Should art seek likelihood or truth? Is the artist a magician or a prophet? What, in fact, is truth? Plato said truth is a “divine vagabondage,” which undoubtedly is why it remains beyond the reach of art, why he contends we must be satisfied with a “likely” imitation.

Since we are not gods, we cannot “vagabond;” we need laws. And this need applies to art. Thus, art must also be a science. As a product of human activity, art must obey rules inherent to the techniques used to create it. But art is also sensible representations, and as such refuses the domination of abstraction and laws. The best way to resist laws is to change them—constantly. Art itself must therefore be change—perpetual change.

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Title: CASTING: Site-Speci c Projection Mapping Installation
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper investigates CASTING, Yiyun Kang’s site-speci c projection mapping installation at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, U.K., and the acquisition of the piece by the V&A in the following year. It identi es how CASTING developed distinctive properties in the eld of projected moving-image installation artworks and how these novel characteristics were re ected in the acquisition by the V&A.

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Title: Cerebral Interaction and Painting
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

The research focuses on combination of novel technology and traditional art. In this paper, a novel interactive art installation (IAI) using user’s thought to interact with a digital Chinese ink painting is introduced. Meanwhile, the final purpose of this
research is to establish a link between novel technology and traditional arts and further to bring out traditional art philosophy by taking the advantages of novel technology. Finally, this research aims to help people understand not only the visual expression of an art, but also its philosophy and spirit through different kinds of interaction. Based on this, the theory research focuses on four parts: traditional art philosophy, artistic and cognitive psychology, traditional art, novel technology. Meanwhile, for practice, a Chinese style IAI experiment including brain waves control technology is introduced to help people better understand the purpose of this research.

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Title: Cinema and the Code
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

The author and his colleagues suggest a criterion for evaluating artistic achievement in the medium of the digital moving image as distinct from other forms of cinema. This criterion is the extent to which the formal possibilities of digital imaging are employed as syntactical or linguistic elements, not simply as ‘special effects’. Four digital imaging techniques are discussed as possibilities for a new syntax and, hence, for the expansion of cinematic language.

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Title: Collaboration with the Future: An Infrastructure for Art+Technology at the San José International Airport
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 2011: Tracing Home in The Age of Networked Techniques
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This paper summarizes the development and implementation of a three-part infrastructure for the ongoing program of technology-based public artwork at Silicon Valley’s newly expanded airport. The physical, technological, and human infrastructure provides flexibility and opportunities for future artists and future technologies while providing a robust framework for the ongoing maintenance and evolution of the program and mediating between the needs of artists and the constraints of an airport.

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Title: Computer Art in the Context of the Journal Leonardo
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

Since 1968, the journal Leonardo has published over 150 articles dealing with the uses of computers in the fine arts. Discussing the work of artists published in Leonardo, the author responds to a recent assertion by art theorist David Carrier that”. . it is genuinely unclear to me whether any art using computers is truly significant”. It is argued that the significance of computer art must be viewed in a number of contexts. Within the context of the development of the computer itself, advances in computer graphics and animation have provided the artist with a powerful plastic medium under the artist’s control. Most artworks produced, except in animation, either realise artistic ideas developed before the advent of the computer or are artistically equivalent to work produced in other media. The impact is significant in the context of the commercial and applied arts. Contemporary artists, as the colonisers of technology, are producing significant artworks as collaborators in Renaissance teams of artists, scientists and technologists. In the larger context of the history of art, however, the significance of contemporary computer art work is not yet clear. It is argued that artistic significance should be sought in works that could not have been made without the use of a computer. Such works must involve the particular attributes of computers, such as their application in interactive situations, their capability for artificial intelligence, their function in networks with telecommunications media, and their ability to allow the synthesis of sound and vision in timebased art forms. The lack of adequate theoretical, historical and critical frameworks is currently the largest impediment in assessing the significance of computer art.

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Title: Computer Graphics as Allegorical Knowledge: Electronic Imagery in the Sciences
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

This informal paper studies the effects of the recent introduction of computer-generated imagery on the practice of science and its function in understanding the world. It intends to introduce the subject of computerized visualization for scientific purposes into a wider debate, to show the diversity of issues involved-scientific, cultural and philosophical-and to build a context in which they can be critiqued. The author seeks to show the variety of scientific imaging and its influences on scientific knowledge; as both experiments and results are increasingly expressed in terms of imagery, the image assumes an integrity of its own and the object to which it refers becomes obscured. This leads to a shift of focus away from abstract theory as the embodiment of knowledge to the ascension of an allegorical image-based science with computer graphics as its natural language.

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Title: Computer Graphics: Effects of Origins
Author(s):
Exhibition: SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema
Category: Paper

Abstract/Summary/Introduction:

New forms of art and technology are frequently cast in the mode of old forms, just as other aspects of material and symbolic culture have been. Only when these new forms become available to the larger population can they affect cultural patterns of maintenance and change. The author traces the evolution from alphanumeric hard copy, static and dynamic screen images, through objects and events that are not screen-based, to dynamic, interactive, multi-sensory output. The effects of origins and prior practices in both technology and art on form, content, material, technique, meaning and purpose of computer graphics are explored. Speculation regarding possible and probable futures are raised.

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