Writings and Talks Data Table

Next: Person Table »

« Previous: Artworks Table

Title Author(s) Contributors Exhibition Collection Session Title Category Writing Abstract Full Text References PDF Keywords
MovISee Yen-Ting Cho SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics New Communication: Moving Bodies Sketch / Art Talk

MovISee is a digital software for people to create personal visual outputs. We use a depth camera to create mixed reality for people to explore the selected information and ultimately transform their understanding the ability of their body movement to create composite
customized visual outputs. In short, it is a system to recreate information and explore personal creativity. The results reveal the sedimentary relative movements through filming; time and space are deconstructed to the extent that meaning is shifted and interpretations become multifaceted; multi-layered images are created in which the fragility and instability of our reality is questioned.

Multi-Media Metamorphosis (or making the medium shoe fit) M. R. Petit SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Sitting: The Seat for Virtual Travel Sketch / Art Talk

A large portion of my work has entailed taking a theme or story and giving it life in a variety of media. The Mutant Gene & Tainted KoolAid Sideshow CD-ROM (completed October 1995) is a navigable interpretation of a series of performances I staged in 1994, by the same name. The performances incorporated live and pre-recorded, multiple-monitor and projected video; animation; text; both sequenced and live instrumental music; and dramatic artifacts and performance elements such as masks and dance.

[View PDF] media and presentation
Multimedia Interactive Artist's Archive and Retrospective Josepha Haveman SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Tooling: Implements for Creativity Sketch / Art Talk

Creative options and challenges: a digital art archive grows into a dynamic showcase with new views of the art.

[View PDF] interactive CD-ROM and portfolio
NARCISSUS Santiago Echeverry SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics New Communication: Moving Bodies Sketch / Art Talk

NARCISSUS is an experimental video and series of large format prints created using the Kinect sensor and Processing 2.0. The works explore the nature of love and tension in the line. The ambiguity of perspective in 3D imagery makes it appear as if the main character in the piece is both lover and loved at the same time, reinforcing the idea of a passionate need that cannot be fulfilled. This work is inspired by a 1976 drawing of Colombian artist Luis Caballero, who died of AIDS in 1995, whose work was a painfully ecstatic, homo-erotic portrait of a generation that was just coming out of the closet. Almost 40 years later, we find ourselves in a Lipovetskian era, where narcissism appears to counterbalance the erotic angst. The actor’s performance is altered due to the usage of technologies that question the traditional role of the video camera’s single point of view

Narrative's Impact on Quality of Experience in Digital Storytelling Øyvind Sørdal Klungre, Asim Hameed, and Andrew Perkis SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Our ways of telling stories have evolved along with advances in technology. This has led to the emergence of digital storytelling, emphasizing multimodality and interactivity. This project explores narrative influences on Quality of Experience of users in digital stories. This is done by creating and implementing a location driven digital story presented to the user by an augmented reality application made in Unity on a mobile device. This narrative system has then been evaluated by 30 people who have participated in a subjective evaluation. The results show that the narrative setup results in a richer, livelier and more engaging experience.

Nervous Ether: Soft Aggregates, Interactive Skins Kathy Velikov, Mary O’Malley, Wiltrud Simbuerger, and Geoffrey Thün SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

This paper describes the authors’ exploration and experimentation with cellular pneumatic aggregates for kinetic, environmentally responsive envelope systems. The work is situated within the history and technology of pneumatic structures, biological paradigms, the agency and aesthetics of material, information translation, and the tension between performance and affect within responsive environments. The paper elaborates on the physical and computational development of novel pneumatic systems, experimentation with their interactive capabilities, and a recently completed installation, Nervous Ether, a pneumatic spatial envelope that operates as an instrument to register and communicate remote environmental information while also developing affective interaction with inhabitants.

1. Thün, Geoffrey, et al., “The Agency of Responsive Envelopes: Interaction, Politics and Interconnected Systems,” International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC) Special Issue: Architectural Robotics Vol. 10, No. 3, 377–400 (2012).

2. Latour, Bruno, What is the Style of Matters of Concern? Two Lectures in Empirical Philosophy (Assen: Van Gorkum, 2008).

3. McCullough, Malcolm, Ambient Commons (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013), 69–89.

4. Ibid., 27–45.

5. Polanyi, Michael, The Tacit Dimension (New York: Doubleday, 1966; reprint, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).

6. Connor, Steven, The Matter of Air (London: Reaktion, 2010), 148–172.

7. Ibid., 157.

8. Ibid., 11.

9. Coole, Diana, and Samantha Frost, eds., New Materialisms. Ontology, Agency and Politics (Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2010).

10. Burkhardt, Berthold, and Frei Otto, IL6: Biology and Building I (Stuttgart: Institute for Lightweight Structures, 1973).

11. Bach, K., et al., IL9 Pneus in Nature and Techniques (Stuttgart: Institute for Lightweight Structures, 1977).

12. Ibid., 22.

13. Ibid., 5.

14. Ibid., 19.

15. Krauss, Rosalind, “Part-Object,” Formless: A User’s Guide, ed. Rosalind Krauss and Yve-Alain Bois (New York: Zone, 1997), 157–158.

16. Banham, Reyner, “Monumental Windbags,” New Society 18, 569–570 (April 1968).

17. Knippers, Jan, et al., Construction Manual for Polymers and Membranes (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2011), 11.

18. Herzog, Thomas, Pneumatic Structures (Stuttgart: Verlag Gerd Hatje, 1976).

19. Dessauce, Marc, The Inflatable Moment: Pneumatics and Protest in ’68 (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999).

20. LeCuyer, Annette, ETFE: Technology and Design (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008).

21. Knippers, Jan, et al., Construction Manual for Polymers and Membranes (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2011).

22. Burry, Jane, and Mark Burry, The New Mathematics of Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 2010).

23. Negroponte, Nicholas, Soft Architecture Machines (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975), 147.

24. Velikov, Kathy, and Geoffrey Thün, “Responsive Building Envelopes: Characteristics and Evolving Paradigms,” Design and Construction of High-Performance Homes, ed. Franca Trubiano (London: Routledge, 2013), 75–92.

25. Hasdell, Peter, “Pneuma: An Indeterminate Architecture, or, Toward a Soft and Weedy Architecture,” Design Ecologies: Sustainable Potentials in Architecture, ed. Lisa Tilder and Beth Blostein (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 92–113.

26. Vincent, Julian, “Biomimetics of Skins,” Functional Properties of Bio-Inspired Surfaces: Characterization and Technological Applications, ed. Eduardo Favret and Nestor Fuentes (London: World Scientific Publishing, 2009), 3.

27. Montie, Eric W., “Blubber Morphology in Wild Bottlenose Dolphins,” Journal of Morphology Vol. 269, 496–511 (2008).

28. Forterre, Yoël, et al., “How the Venus Flytrap Snaps,” Nature Vol. 433, 421–425 (2005).

29. Beesley, Philip, “Posthumanist Responsive Architecture: Environments That Care,” Proceedings of the 2010 ACSA National Conference, ed. Bruce Goodwin and Judith Kinnard (Washington, D.C.: ACSA Press, 2010), 640–649.

30. Negroponte, Nicholas, Soft Architecture Machines (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975), 133.

pneumatic structures and biological paradigms
New Interactions: Communities and Information Ian Gwilt, Melinda Rackham, Paul Vanouse, Ernest Edmonds, and Ted Selker SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Panel / Roundtable

In coining the phrase “relational aesthetics,” the contemporary French art theorist and curator Nicolas Bourriaud attempted to define a trend in creative works that configures interactive scenarios in which everyday experiences are the catalyst for audience-driven participation. This panel explores how the tacit activities of urban living are being used to form the foundations for new types of interaction that exploit community life and information-rich environ­ments. Topics include how “relational interaction” can be facilitated by the potential of new-media technologies to simultaneously create multi-layered datascapes and intimate, culturally specific participa­tory situations.

New Media, New Craft? Andrew Richardson SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

This paper will examine the use of computer programming in relationship to the practice and approach of traditional crafts, paying specific attention to the ethos of the Arts and Crafts Movement as a model for assessing the use and status of computation in a creative context. In order to consider the role of programming in the context of traditional craft, it is important to provide a brief outline relating to the ethos and practice of craft. What is understood by the term craft, what are its characteristics and outcomes? After considering this, it will then be possible to apply this understanding to the role of programming and its engagement with digital material.

[View PDF]
No in Disguise: Algorithmically Targeted Conversations About Sexual Consent in a Multimedia Art Installation Simon Boas SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design 3D Print, Design, Installations Paper

No in Disguise is a multimedia installation that explores how a popular dating app pre-structures sexual relationships through interviews with men algorithmically targeted by their views on sexual consent. This paper describes the collaborative artwork and discusses how digital expression of the self has direct consequences for offline experiences.

Not-Art Digital Images: An Artist's Perspective Peter Voci SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema Paper

Working with the New York State Police and the Nassau County Medical Examiners Office, a forensic anthropologist, a forensic medical photographer and an imaging systems artist attempted to reconstruct a face from the skull of a young woman. Facial feature components selected from police identification kits were digitized and manipulated to match control points and overlaid onto a digitized version of the skull. In this way a series of images was created that were called ‘not-art’ even though an artistic aspect was present.

  1. Wilton Marion Krogman and Mehmet Yasar Iscan, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, 2nd Ed. (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1986).
  2. Kimon Kicolaides, The Natural Way to Draw (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1941).
  3. Betty Edwards, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain (Los Angeles, CA: J. P. Tarcher, 1979).
[View PDF]
Notations Johnson Liew, Jie-Jun Zhu, Jia-Ying Chou, Sheng-Chieh Wang, and Pey-Chwen Lin SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Music makes Visual Art / Visual Art makes Music Sketch / Art Talk

For the work, CYCLE, viewers can pluck the interactive kinetic instrument to instantly compose music and produce clefs on the projection screen. The clefs on the screen appropriate from the ancient clefs used in Gregorian Chants of the 15th century. Composed of these ancient clefs and tabs, each note is presented through squares, belonging to unaccompanied monophonic music clefs. The interactive mechanical instrument creates clefs using Arduino, Adafruit, Processing, Max/MSP, Bluetooth, LED, 3D printing, acrylic, and metal tubes, enabling viewers to instantly play the instrument on-site and create various clefs. The music generated is instantly converted into the correct clefs, which are projected onto the screen. When there are no viewers present, it will automatically play and present the sounds and clefs previously created by viewers, expressing the digital aesthetics of interactive technology art and collaborative creation, and imbuing digital kinetic instruments with more cultural and musical qualities.

Notime: Identity and Collaboration Victoria Vesna SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

Although communication networks offer the possibility of a distributed community that can collaborate and exchange vital information, there is little time for these collaborations and exchanges to occur. Ironically, the same technology that makes distributed community a possibility and promises to save us time prevents us from actually having time to build community. Distributed presence inevitably moves us towards group consciousness, which shifts our perception of time and even productivity. This essay uses a large collaborative networked art piece, “notime,” as an example of how the creative process shifts when working on the networks. The project attempts to rethink the idea of the avatar as a physical representation and compares it to that of energetic bodies carrying information and evolving with the time people devote to participating, onsite and online. “notime” is conceived to raise questions about our perception of time and identity as we extend our personal networks through technology.

1. Hayles, K. (1999). How we became posthuman: Virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature, and informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 47.
2. For instance, the year 2000, anticipated with great fear in the West, was year 6236 according to the first Egyptian calendar, SJ 19 according to the current Mayan Great Cycle, 2753 according to the old Roman calendar, 2749 according to the ancient Babylonian calendar, 2544 according to the Buddhist calendar, 1997 according to Christ’s actual birth (circa 4 B.C.), 1716 according to the Coptic calendar, I378 according to the Persian calendar, 208 according to the French Revolutionary calendar, and the Year of the Dragon according to the Chinese calendar.
3. Poulsen, K. (1998). The 2YK solution: Run for your life! Wired Magazine, August, 6.08:168.
4. The term was coined in 1976 by Richard Dawkins in his book The selfish gene. Dawkins speculated that human beings have an adaptive mechanism that other species don’t have. In addition to genetic inheritance with its possibilities and limitations, humans, said Dawkins, can pass their ideas from one generation to another, rather than through the longer process of genetic adaptation and selec­tion. Examples ofmemes might include the idea of God, the importance of the individual as opposed to group importance, the belief that the environment can to some extent be controlled, or the idea that technologies can create an elec­tronically interconnected world community. Today, the word is sometimes applied ironically to ideas deemed to be of passing value. Dawkins himself described such short-lived ideas as memes that would have a short life in the meme pool.
5. Bak, P. and K. Chen. (1991), 46.
6. In 1990, Glenn A. Held and his colleagues at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center devised an ingenious experiment with sand piles that put this theory to the test. They constructed an apparatus that added one grain of sand at a time to a pile of sand. The balance had a precision of .000 I gram and a capacity of 100 grams. Each grain of sand weighed about .0006 gram; a sand pile whose base was four centimeters in diameter weighed approximately 15 grams. The group used a personal computer co control the motor and to moni­tor the balance. Held and his group ran the experiment for two weeks, dropping more than 35,000 grains of sand on the four-centimeter plate. They observed avalanches in a range of sizes (Held et al., 1990, 1120-1123).
7. Haraway, D. (1998). Deanimations: Maps and portraits of life itself. In Picturing science, producing art. A. Jones and P. Galison, eds. New York: Routledge.
8. Wave mechanics is the version of quantum physics that was developed initially by Erwin Schrodinger in 1926. The idea came from the work of Louis de Broglie via Albert Einstein. De Broglie pointed the way to wave mechanics with his idea chat electron waves “in orbit” around an atomic nucleus had to fit a whole number of wavelengths into each orbit, so chat the wave neatly bit its own tail, like the alchemical symbol of the worm Ouroboros (Gribbin, J., 1999, 427).
9. Goldstein, (1993), 115-16.
10. Hayles, K.
11. Wiener, Norbert (1954). The human use of human beings: Cybernetics and society. New York: Doubleday, 103.
12. Stelarc’s work can be seen at: stelarc.net
13. Langong, C. (1989).
14. Coyne, R. (1995). Designing info,mation technology in the postmodern age. Boston: MIT Press, 80.
15. Haraway, D. (1998), 186.
16. In addition to being a professor in pathology and a member of the bioengineer­ing faculty at MIT, Donald Ingber is the founder of Molecular Geodesics, Inc., a company that creates advanced materials with biologically inspired proper­ties.
17. Ingber, D. (1998). Scientific America11, 30.
18. Ibid., 32.
19. Ibid., 30-39.
20. Edmonson, C. Amy (1987). A Fuller explanation: The synergetic geometry
of R. Buckminster Fu/le,; 257.
21. Ibid., 239.
22. Associated Press. (1982).
23. Varela, F. et. al. (1991). The embodied mind. Cambridge: MIT Press, 94.
24. Cyber Geography can be accessed at: www.cybergeography.org
25. Claude Shannon, along with Warren Weaver, laid the foundation of modern information theory. See Shannon, Claude, and Warren Weaver. The Mathematical Theory of Communication, 1949. Foreward by Richard E. Blahut and Bruce Hajek. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
26. Fuller, R.B. (1962). Syne,getics Dictio11a1y. Citing Oregon Lecture #9, July 12, 326.05.
27. Synergestics shows how we may measure our experiences geometrically and topologically, and how we may employ geometry and topology to coordinate all information regarding our experiences, both metaphysical and physical. Information can be either conceptually metaphysical or quantitatively special­case physical experiencing, or it can be both. The quantized physical case is entropic, while the metaphysical generalized conceptioning induced by the generalized content of the information is syn tropic. The resulting mind-appre­ciated syntropy evolves to anticipatorily terminate the entropically accelerated disorder (Fuller, Synergiscics Dictionary, 200.06).
28. We were joined by Ruth West, a graduate student in Design I Media Arts who was a geneticist for eight years before starting her graduate studies; lngo
Tributh, a student in information studies in economics from Germany; and Burt Peng, a student from the film department at UCLA.
29. Edmundson.
30. Dyson, F. (1992). Fom Eros to Gaia. New York: Pantheon, 341.
31. Telematic Connections: the Virtual Embrace is curated by Steve Dietz.
32. “Notime” is commissioned by the Walker Art Center and sponsored by the Independent Curators International and the UCLA Academic Senate.

1. Brand, S. (1999). The clock of the long now. New York: Basic Books.

2. Duberman, M. (1972). Black mountain: An exploration in community. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. 3. Haraway, D. J. (1985). Manifesto for cyborgs: Science, technology, and socialist feminism in the 80s. Socialist Review 80, 65-108.

3. Haken, H. (1987). Synergetics: An approach to self-organisation. In Self-01ga11- ising systems, Yates, F.E., ed. New York: Plenum.

5. Harvey, D. (1989). The condition ofpostmodemity. Oxford: Blackwell.

6. Innis, H.A. (1951). The bias of communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 183.

7. Jones, S. (1997). The Internet and its social landscape. In Virtual culture: Identity & communication in cybersociety. London: Sage Publications.

8. Mandel T, Van de Leun, G. (1996). Rules of the net.

9. Mumford, L. (1962). Technics and civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.

10. Rifkin, J. (1987). Time wars. New York: Touchstone Books.

11. Varela, F. (1995). The emergent self. In John Brockman ed. The third culture. New York: Touchstone.

[View PDF] communication, perception, and time
Null By Morse: Historical Optical Communication to Smartphones Tom Schofield SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

Null By Morse is an installation artwork that incorporates a military signaling lamp and smartphones. A series of Morse messages is transmitted automatically by the signal lamp. The messages are drawn from the history of Morse and telegraphy. A custom app for iPhone and Android uses the phone’s camera to identify the changing light levels of the lamp and the associated timings. The app then decodes the Morse and displays the message on the screen on top of the camera image. This paper discusses the artwork in relation to the following theoretical aspects: It contextualizes the position of smartphones in the history of optical communication. It proposes an approach to smartphones in media art that moves away from futurist perspectives whose fundamental approach is to seek to creatively exploit the latest features. Lastly, it discusses the interaction with the phone in the exhibition context in terms of slow technology.

1. Kittler, Friedrich, Discourse Networks I800II900 (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ Press, 1992).

2. Kusahara, Machiko, “The ‘Baby Talkie,’ Domestic Media and the Japanese Modern,” Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications, ed. Erkki Huhtamo and Jussi Parikka (Berkeley, CA: Univ of California Press, 20n) 123-147.

3. Huhtamo, Erkki, “Elements of Screenology <wroo1.wrocenter.pl/erkki/html/erkki_en.htmb, accessed IO March, 2013.

4. Zielinski, Siegfried, Deep Time of the Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006).

5. Standage, Tom, The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers (London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).

6. Hobza, Klara, “Morse Code Communication,”<klarahobza.com/work/morse_code/>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

7. Koh, Germaine, “Relay,” <www.germainekoh.com/ma/projects_detail.
cfm?pg=projects&projectID=2l>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

8. Ibid.

9. Evening Chronicle, “Faint Hearted Art or a Flash of Genius?” <www.chroniclelive.co.uk/north-eastnews/evening-chronicle-news/2005/07/14/faint-hearted-art-or-a-flash-of-genius-72703-15736001/>, accessed 19 January 2013.

10. Schmeiduch, Markus et al., “#CPHsignals,” <ciid.dk/education/portfolio/idpn/courses/systems-layers/projects/cphsignals/>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

11. Schmeiduch, Markus, et al., “#CPHsignals,” <ciid.dk/education/portfolio/idpn/courses/systemslayers/projects/cphsignals/>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

I2. Arduino, <www.arduino.cc>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

13. Standage, Tom, The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers (London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).

14. Gere, Charlie, Art, Time and Technology (New York: Berg, 2006).

15. Kittler, Friedrich, Discourse Networks I800II900 (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Univ Press, 1992).

16. National Association for Amateur Radio, “Learning Morse Code,” <www.arrl.org/learning-morsecode>, accessed 19 January 2013.

17. Standage, Tom, The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s On-line Pioneers (London: Wiedenfeld & Nicolson, 1998).

18. Ibid.

19. “Eye Witness, American Originals from the National Archives,” <www.archives.gov/exhibics/eyewicness/flash.php>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

20. Burnham, Jack, “Arc and Technology: The Panacea That Failed,” Video Culture: A Critical Investigation, ed. John G. Hanhardt (Lay ton, UT: Peregrine Smith Books, 1986) 232-248.

21. Wolff, Michael, “Apple’s Roe Scares with its Samsung Lawsuit Win,” <www.guardian.co.uk/commencisfreeho12/augh8/apple-roc-scarcs-wich-samsung-lawsuic-win>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

22. Siegler, MG, “le Just Works,” <http://cechcrunch.comhou/06/08/apple-icloud-google-cloud/>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

23. Burnham, Jack, “Arc and Technology: The Panacea That Failed,” Video Culture: A Critical Investigation, ed. John G. Hanhardt (Lay ton, UT: Peregrine Smith Books, 1986) 232-248.

24. Ibid.

25, Murata, Takeshi, <www.cakeshimuraca.com>, accessed 19 January, 2013.

26. Menkman, Rosa, ” Glitch Studies Manifesto,” <www.haraldpecerscrom.com/concenc/5.pdfs/Rosa%20Menkman%20-%20Glitch%20Studies%20Manifesto%2orewrite%2ofor%20Video%20Vorcex%202%20reader.pdf>, accessed 19 January 2013.

27. Hallnas, Lars and Johan Redscri:im, ” Slow Technology-Designing for Reflection,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 5, No. 3 (2001) 201-212.

28. Ibid.

29. Verbeek, Peter-Paul and Petran Kockelkoren, “The Things That Matter,” Design Issues, Vol. 14, No. 3, 28-42 (Autumn, 1998).

Morse code
Numb Taeil Lee SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Numb, shaped as an exaggerated eyeball, follows you and reflects the blinks of yours. It makes you become aware of your own blinking and sensitive to your own sensation. Numb illustrates how we build relationship with technology through senses, and how we become sensitive to ourselves by and with technology.

Numerical Anamorphosis: An Artistic Exploration Francesco De Comité and Laurent Grisoni SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

We show how raycasting techniques help finding new effective methods for building general anamorphoses, using arbitrary shaped mirrors and three dimensional anamorphic sculptures. This leads in turn to the achievement of 3D printed sculptures, validating the method.

Object Intermediaries: How New Media Artists Translate the Language of Things Kayla Anderson SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

This paper uses Walter Benjamin’s concept of translation between people and things as a focal point for analysis of the work of contemporary new-media artists Paula Gaetano Adi and Lindsey French, who utilize robotics and interactive technology to explore interspecies communication. Framed by materialist, poststructuralist, and posthumanist theory, along with recent discourse in object-oriented ontology, this paper poses the work of Gaetano Adi and French as potential models for visualizing object-oriented and vital materialist interactions. In the age of the Anthropocene, thinking beyond the human has become increasingly vital in both ethical and ecological terms, making the ability to envision less anthropocentric, more object-oriented worldviews both novel and timely.

1. Benjamin, Walter, Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1978) 330.

2. Steyerl, Hito, “The Language of Things,” European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies, 2–5 (2006), <http://eipcp.net>.

3. Bennett, Jane, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (London/Durham: Duke University Press, 2010).

4. Steyerl, Hito, “The Language of Things,” European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies, 3 (2006), <http://eipcp.net>.

5. Kac, Eduardo, Natural History of the Enigma, <www.ekac.org>; Falundi, Robert, Kate Hartman, and Kati London, Botanicalls, <www.botanicalls.com>; Noisefold, <http://noisefold.com>.

6. Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, <www.dunneandraby.co.uk>; Auger, James and Jimmy Loizeau, <www.auger-loizeau.com>; Dobson, Kelly, <web.media.mit.edu>.

7. Harman, Graham, Towards Speculative Realism: Essays and Lectures (United Kingdom: Zero Books, 2010).

8. Latour, Bruno, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

9. Bennett, Jane, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (London/Durham: Duke University Press, 2010).

10. Gaetano Adi, Paula, Urban Arts Space, <http://uas.osu.edu>.

11. Khon, Eduardo, How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology beyond the Human (Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2013), 8.

12. Gaetano Adi, Paula, <http://paulagaetanoadi.com>.

13. Ibid.

14. Here I would like to draw a connection between the robotic agent and agency in the philosophical meaning of the word.

15. Braitenberg, Valentino, Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984).

16. Bryant, Levi R., The Democracy of Objects (Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2011), 19.

17. Gaetano Adi, Paula, and Amelia Jaycen, “Paula Gaetano Adi, UNT New Media Artist, Receives Prestigious VIDA Grant Award,” University of North Texas Research Magazine, last updated December 2, 2013.

18. Ibid.

19. Yeregui, Mariela, for Bola de Nieve, <www.boladenieve.org>. Yeregui’s Proxemia is interesting in comparison to TZ’IJK because the projects are technically very similar, but conceptually and aesthetically quite different.

20. Gaetano Adi, Paula, and Amelia Jaycen, “Paula Gaetano Adi, UNT New Media Artist, Receives Prestigious VIDA Grant Award,” University of North Texas Research Magazine, last updated December 2, 2013.

21. French, Lindsey, <http://lindseyfrench.com>.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. There are several projects outside of the art world, such as the “plant concerts” of the Damanhur spiritual group, that translate input from plants into “music” that is sonically pleasing to humans. The goal of these projects is to use plants as a medium to create music for human audiences. French’s Concert, on the other hand, does not present anything we would classify as “music,” and is equally if not more concerned with producing an experience for plants.

25. Bennett, Jane, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (London/Durham: Duke University Press, 2010), 120.

26. Franke, Anselm, Animism Volume 1 (Berlin: Sternberg Press, 2010); Antonelli, Paola, Talk to Me: Design and Communication Between People and Objects (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2011).

27. Bogost, Ian, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing (London/Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 124.

28. Bennett, Jane, Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things (London/Durham: Duke University Press, 2010), ix.

29. Bogost, Ian, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing (London/Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012).

30. French, Lindsey, <http://lindseyfrench.com>.

31. Steyerl, Hito, “The Language of Things,” European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies, 3 (2006), <http://eipcp.net>.

Off-Lining to Tape Is Not Archiving: Why We Need Real Archiving to Support Media Archaeology and Ensure Our Visual Effects Legacy Thrives Evanthia Samaras and Andrew Johnston SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design Digital Tools, Archives, Memories Paper

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study into the archiving practices employed by professional VFX studios. The current practices are contrasted with best practices from the field of archiving, and suggestions for improvement are made.

Old Ideas in New Boxes Simon Penny SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Essay

When we look at ‘cutting edge’ technologies, it is the radical newness that we are encouraged to see. This radical newness helps us forget that technologies arise out of past culture. The generation raised on Buck Rogers grew up to make the space race, and the generation raised on Star Trek are making the Holodeck. In order to understand the historical significance of 3D imaging, we must place it as part of the historical development of the automation of perspective. Lev Manovich has followed this line of study in his essay, as do Paul Virilio and Harun Farocki elsewhere. According to this line of reasoning, we must look at computer graphics, interactivity, and virtual reality as moments in the larger cultural progression of the automation of visual systems.

[View PDF]
One-Stroke Yuichiro Katsumoto SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Narratives and Culture Sketch / Art Talk

A character is a two-dimensional symbol. Also, it is a static image. But we cannot write a character without moving our bodies and spending time. Thus, character potentially has a time axis. In order to reveal this time axis, the device called “Mojigen” was created. Mojigen writes alphabets in the air by the trajectory of the coil springs operated by eight robot arms. By
changing the point of view, we can notice that a character has a time axis with dynamic moves.

Painting in a Digital World: I Told You So James Faure Walker SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

Over the past 10 years, the proportion of painters who use computers in their work has been rising, and rising dramatically. They may not all be expert users, and they probably know next to nothing about digital art or its origins, and nothing at all about its pioneer artists.
They will not have heard of SIGGRAPH. They read Frieze. They probably outnumber hardcore digital artists by a factor of 50 to one. So if we are to speak of the way things are going in “digital art,” they are part of the picture.

[View PDF]
ParkBench Public-Access Web Kiosks Nina Sobell and Emily Hartzell SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Sketch / Art Talk

ParkBench kiosks address the problem of elitism in cyberspace. The Internet’s information and connectivity resources seem to promise universal access. Our aim is to reach out to those who lack the prerequisites for getting online.

[View PDF] cyberspace and interactive installation
Participating Interface Seonah Mok, Jaehwon Jeon, and Monson H. Hayes SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

This paper presents an artwork that is concerned with the interactions among people rather than the interaction between an audience and the artwork. We visualize the physical motion variations from the interactions among different participants using Kinect-based depth estimation and video tracking algorithms. The proposed work can visualize the affective experiences based on the physical distance between participants. We also provide experiences in which a participant becomes a part of the artwork in the form of both shape and interface. The body of a participant plays an important role in communicating and interacting with other participant and the artwork itself.

ABRAMOVIC, M. 2010. The artist is present. Marron Atrium, MoMA. BACUM. Pirouette en re menor. www.bacum.info.

BELLET, N. E. A. Play. www.youtube.com/watch?v= wEliXQnxFSk&feature=related.

BORENSTEIN, G. 2012. Making Things See. O’Reilly. CASTRO, B. 2012. Entre. Imagem-experimento, URRJ, Rio de Janeiro.

CILLARI, S. 2006. Se mi sei vicino. VIDA 9.0 Art & Artificial Life, Madrid, Spain. KLEIN, Y., 1958. The void. Iris Clert’s Gallery. LEE, H. A. 2001. Yves klein’s pneumatic period and the void. Association of Western Art History, 143–169.

LEISTER, B. 2011. Intervention. Ironton Gallery Denver, Colorado.

LEVIN, G. 2003. Messa di voce. www.flong.com/projects/messa/, November.

MERLEAU-PONTY, M. 2002. PhenomenologyofPerception. Routledge Classics, United Kingdom.

MICROSOFT. 2010. Kinect Interactive Art Installation, Stachus, Munich.

MOK, S. 2012. Between. Art & Technology Exhibition, Seoul.

NGUYEN, M. E. A. Stepin. www.youtube.com/watch?v=4PvyUskLzSg.

OPENNI. http://code.google.com/p/simple-openni/.

REAS, C. . F. 2007. Processing, A Programmers Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists. The M.I.T. Press. (Sourceavailable at http://processing.org).

SNIBBE, S. 1998. Boundary functions. Phaeno Wolfsburg.

SNIBBE, S. 2007. Social light. www.snibbeinteractive.com.

[View PDF]
Perceptual Cells: James Turrell’s Vision Machines Between Two Paracinemas Alla Gadassik SIGGRAPH 2016: Data Materialities Paper

James Turrell’s perceptual cells incorporate the neurophysiological apparatus as an active participant not only in the reception of projected moving-images, but also in the very production and transmission of virtual moving-images. Combining two perceptual phenomena—the stroboscopic effect and the Ganzfeld Effect—Turrell’s perceptual cells integrate the architecture of projection with the architecture of organic vision to produce a single networked extra-sensory medium. This paper performs a phenomenological analysis of Turrell’s Light Reignfall (2011) perceptual cell, following its design, effects on the viewer, and cultural and material history. In the process, the paper situates the perceptual cell between the history of avant-garde cinema (what historians have called “paracinema”) and the history of perceptual psychology and parapsychology (what the author terms “para-cinema”). Between these two paracinemas, Turrell’s perceptual cells activate the aesthetic potential of what the author discusses as “edgeless projection.”

1. J. Walley, “The Material of Film and the Idea of Cinema: Contrasting Practices in Sixties and Seventies Avant-Garde Film,” October Vol. 103, 15–30 (Winter 2003).

2. According to James Turrell, the original design called for one male one female viewer (email correspondence, March 24, 2016). However, every single instance I have encountered in person or in publicity images and catalogs features two young women.

3. E. C. Krupp, “Under the Dome,” LACMA Unframed (February 13, 2014), <http://unframed.lacma.org/2014/02/13/under-the-dome/>.

4. J.D. O’Brien, “Light Happens: Based Upon a Distant Memory and a Recent Viewing of James Turrell: A Retrospective at LACMA,” The Los Angeles Review of Books (January 25, 2014), <https://lareviewofbooks.org/essay/light-happens/>.

5. Ibid.

6. Raymond Bellour, “Of Another Cinema,” in Art and the Moving Image: A Critical Reader, ed. Tanya Leighton (London: Tate Publishing, 2008), p. 420.

7. F.A. Kittler, Gramophone, Film, Typewriter, trans. G. Winthrop-Young and M. Wutz (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999), 122.

8. Walley, 18.

9. For a discussion of Tony Conrad’s flicker films in relationship to the post-war avant-garde’s interest in cybernetic theory and neurophysiological perception, see B.W. Joseph, Beyond the Dream Syndicate: Tony Conrad and the Arts After Cage (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008).

10. P. Sharits, L.L. Cathcart, and R.E. Krauss, Paul Sharits: Dream Displacement and Other Projects (Buffalo, NY: Albright-Knox Art Gallery, 1976).

11. See McCall’s remarks on his shift to gallery light installation from an initial interest in cinematographic projection in A. McCall, “Line Describing a Cone and Related Films,” October Vol. 103, 42–62 (Winter 2003).

12. Jordan Belson’s planetarium projections received special attention in Gene Youngblood’s seminal book Expanded Cinema (New York: P. Dutton & Co., 1970).

13. Gloria Sutton offers an excellent analysis of VanDerBeek’s Movie-Dromes in her book The Experience Machine: Stan VanDerBeek’s Movie-Drome and Expanded Cinema (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

14. G. Didi-Huberman, “The Fable of the Place,” in James Turrell: The Other Horizon, ed. P. Noever (Vienna: MAK and Hatje Cantz, 2001), 48.

15. G. Bruno, Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014), 67.

16. C. Metz, The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema, trans. C. Britton et al. (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1982), 60.

17. J. Wackermann, P. Pütz and C. Allefeld, “Ganzfeld-induced Hallucinatory Experience, Its Phenomenology and Cerebral Electrophysiology,” Cortex Vol. 44, No. 10, 1364–1378 (2008).

18. J.J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception: Classic Edition (New York: Taylor and Francis, 2015), 143.

19. For a different discussion of James Turrell’s color fields in relationship to James Gibson’s model of perception, see P. Beveridge, “Color Perception and the Art of James Turrell,” Leonardo Vol 33.4, 305–313 (2000).

20. For a detailed account of James Turrell’s interest in perceptual psychology and the role of emerging technology in California’s Light and Space movement, see C.E. Adcock, James Turrell: the Art of Light and Space (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1990), 61–84.

21. J. Canales, “A Number of Scenes in a Badly Cut Film,” Histories of Scientific Observation, ed. L. Daston and E. Lunbeck (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), 223.

Pixel of Matter: New Ways of Seeing With an Active Volumetric Filmmaking System Seonghoon Ban and Kyung Hoon Hyun SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Crafts, Waves, Robots, and Pixels Paper

We introduce an installation art project using the active volumetric filmmaking technology to investigate its possibilities in art practice. To do that, we developed a system to film volumetric video in real time, thereby allowing its users to capture large environments and objects without fixed placement or preinstallation of cameras.

Political Crystals: Algorithmic Strategies for Data Visualization Clarissa Ribeiro and Herbert Rocha SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Combining algorithmic modeling strategies for data visualization with digital fabrication, the work includes the generative design of a series of geometrically intricate crystals-like 3D models using as raw data Twitter APIs having as the search phrase hashtags related to Brazilian 2018 presidential elections twitted from defined geolocations.

Posture Platform and The Drawing Room: Virtual Teleportation in Cyberspace Luc Courchesne, Emmanuel Durand, and Bruno Roy SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

Three-hundred-sixty-degree audio/visual immersion and the restoration of non-verbal communication cues are essential features for interfaces inviting the human body in cyberspace. The Posture Platform is a network of bases that offers access to a shared virtual environment. Each base is composed of an immersive 360-degree visual display, a surround-sound system, an array of image capture devices, a microphone, an omnidirectional controller/pointer, and a computer with wifi and an internet connection. The Drawing Room is the most recent virtual space developed for the platform. It invites participants to a blank shared space where they draw their own environment collaboratively. The platform, and the project it hosts, is an example of the art, design, and engineering challenges and opportunities associated with development of inhabitable cyberspace.

1. De Saussure’s instructions to Bourrit in 1776: “I instructed the draftsman to start by tracing a large circle on paper which he would call the horizontal circle; he would then place on this circle all the visible points that are at eye level; he will finally draw outside of this circle everything he sees above the horizon and within, everything he sees below. I wanted each object above and below the horizontal circle to be positioned at a distance proportional to the corresponding angle of elevation or depression.” De Saussure, Horace-Bénédict, Voyages dans les Alpes (Neuchatel: Samuel Fauche, 1779), 496.

2. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophers (Leibniz, Hume, De Condillac, Rousseau, Goethe) introduced modern ideas on systems, sensualism, education, citizenship, participative governance, and democracy. Doing so, they invented the “sensitive subject,” whose perception of reality went beyond the mere observation of natural phenomena to account for human feelings. Their insights filtered and brewed through generations until today’s immersive, interactive, and networked technologies, participatory cultures, and social media.

3. Barthes, Roland, and Frédéric Berthet, “Présentation,” in Communications no. 30 (Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/Seuil, 1979), 147.

4. Hall, E.T. The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1969).

5. Barthes, Roland, and Frédéric Berthet, “Présentation,” in Communications no. 30 (Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales/Seuil, 1979), 141. The importance of gaze in shared virtual environments is also well described by Jeremy N. Bailenson et al. in “Gaze and Task Performance in Shared Virtual Environments,” Journal of Visual Computer Animation Vol. 13, No. 5, 313–320 (2002).

6. The SPIN Framework, SCENIC, and Posture Vision are developed in open source at the Metalab, the research department of Montréal’s Society for Arts and Technology (SAT), <www.sat.qc.ca>.

7. Prince, Simon, et al., “3D Live: Real Time Captured Content for Mixed Reality,” Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society, 2002).

8. Alexiadis, Dimitrios S., Dimitrios Zarpalas, and Petros Daras, “Real-Time, Full 3-D Reconstruction of Moving Foreground Objects from Multiple Consumer Depth Cameras,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia Vol. 15, No. 2, 339–358 (2013).

9. Although less visually immersive than the hemispherical screens typically used, the panoramic display created with six large LCD monitors for the Montréal-Liverpool connection worked in creating a context for interaction and collaboration.

10. Asset management over the network is essential to the unified experience of the Posture Platform and its materialization in The Drawing Room. To make for a shared real-time experience, every change each participant makes in the virtual environment, including movements and creation of lines or cubes, and the sounds associated with voices or objects, must be instantly distributed to others in real time. All local or remote changes and alterations are thus managed online by the SPIN server.

11. Arefin, Ahsan, Raoul Rivas, and Klara Nahrstedt, “Prioritized Evolutionary Optimization in Open Session Management for 3D Tele-immersion,” Proceedings of the MMSys (Oslo: February 26–March 1, 2013).

12. Cruz-Neira, Carolina, et al., “The CAVE: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment,” Communications of the ACM Vol. 35, No. 6, 64–72 (1992).

13. Shaw, Jeffrey, “Movies after Film—The Digitally Expanded Cinema,” New Screen Media: Cinema, Art, Narrative, ed. Martin Rieser and Andrea Zapp (London: ZKM Karlsruhe/British Film Institute, 2002), 268–275.

14. Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn, et al., “Immersive Full-Surround Multi-User System Design,” Computers & Graphics Vol. 40, 10–21 (2014).

15. <www.fulldome.org>.

16. Barsalo, René, “When Are You?” SAT [Metalab] Research Papers (July 2011).

immersion and cyberspace
Pulse Shape 22: Audiovisual Performance and Data Transmutation Mark Cetila SIGGRAPH 2016: Data Materialities Paper

Pulse Shape 22 is an improvisational audiovisual performance featuring shortwave radio transmissions as the sole source material for real-time audio processing alongside video of the sun projected through cast-glass lenses designed specifically for this piece. The structure of the piece is derived from metrics on energy accumulation over a period of 2.2 nanoseconds resulting from the targeting of 60 laser beams on a single tetrahedral hohlraum in weapons testing experiments as carried out by the Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion unit, at the Omega Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. Pulse Shape 22 is an exploration of architectural space through the use of site- and time-specific information found in regions of the electromagnetic spectrum outside the reaches of the human
sensory apparatus. It is an attempt to alter the audience’s perceptions of their surroundings and create
a moment of rupture from hidden worlds found in our local environment.

1. OMEGA, <http://www.lle.rochester.edu/omega_facility/omega/>, accessed March 2016.

2. S.P. Parker, ed., McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Physics, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997), 42.

3. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Tetrahedral Hohlraum High-Convergence Implosion Experiments on Omega ID4-FY98 (Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1998), 2.

4. J. Cage, Silence (Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1961), 3.

5. D. Kahn, “Three Receivers,” Experimental Sound and Radio, ed. Allen S. Weiss (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001), 73.

6. T. Edison, “Edison’s Views on Life and Death,” Scientific American, 446 (October 1920).

7. C.M. von Hausswolff, “1485.0 kHZ,” Cabinet Magazine, Issue 1, 60 (Winter 2000/01).

8. J. Banks, “Rorschach Audio: Ghost Voices and Perceptual Creativity,” Leonardo Music Journal Volume 11, 77 (2001).

9. J. Cage, and M. Feldman, Radio Happenings: Conversations / Gespräche (Cologne: MusikTexte, 1993), 19.

10. D. Kahn, “Electrical Atmospheres,” Invisible Fields: Geographies of Radio Waves, eds. José Luis de Vicente, Honor Harger, and Josep Perelló (Barcelona: Arts Santa Mònica, 2012), 26.

11. B. Gysin, “Dreamachine,” Flickers of the Dreamachine, ed. Paul Cecil (Hove, UK: Codex, 1996), 5.

12. A. Powell, Deleuze, Altered States and Film (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), 107.

13. Ibid.

14. Cavanaugh later withdrew all of his films from the Anthology Film Archives “at a time in his life when, due to extreme LSD experiences, he sank into a period of insanity during which he was institutionalized for several years,” cf. Fluxfilm Anthology, <http://home.utah.edu/~klm6/3905/ff5_ Blink.html>, accessed March 2016.

15. H. Higgins, Fluxus Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 17.

16. P. Adams Sitney, “Structural Film,” Film Culture Reader, ed. P. Adams Sitney (New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000), 327.

17. Ibid.

18. W. Rose, “Annotated Filmography and Performance History,” Optic Antics: The Cinema of Ken Jacobs, eds. M. Pierson, D. E. James, and P. Arthur (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 270.

19. Ibid., 272.

20. J. Walley, “The Material of Film and the Idea of Cinema: Contrasting Practices in Sixties and Seventies Avant-Garde Film,” October Volume 103, 17 (Winter 2003).

21. M. Pierson, “Introduction: Ken Jacobs—A Half-Century of Cinema,” Optic Antics: The Cinema of Ken Jacobs, eds. M. Pierson, D. E. James, and P. Arthur (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 16.

22. C. van Campen, The Hidden Sense: Synaesthesia in Art and Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 45.

23. Ibid., 20–23, 50–53.

24. C. Cox, “Lost in Translation: Sound in the Discourse of Synaesthesia,” ArtForum, 241 (October 2005).

25. P. Sharits, “Hearing: Seeing,” The Avant-Garde Film: A Reader of Theory and Criticism, ed. P. Adams Sitney (New York: Anthology Film Archives, 1978), 256–7.

26. Y. Novak, “Interview with Steve Roden,” <http://www.tokafi.com/15questions/interview-steve- roden/>, accessed March 2016.

Raised On YouTube: Cultural Data Materialization Using Plants Misha Rabinovichi SIGGRAPH 2016: Data Materialities Paper

Raised on YouTube is an installation and game that grows plants using only the light of projected video and makes ecology legible as a multiplayer game. The challenge of finding the most nurturing video is crowdsourced online. As players watch a webcam feed of the plants surrounded by two-way mirrors, their computer power is diverted to photosynthetic video analysis. The system calculates the photosynthetic score for each video using a basic botanical model. The resulting shape and density of the plant grow bed serves as a data visualization of the energy patterns in the cultural stream. The system provides opportunities to reflect on the effects of long-term exposure to contemporary media and to imagine ecological possibilities of participatory culture.

1. A.W.D. Larkum, S.E. Douglas, and J.A. Raven, eds., Photosynthesis in Algae (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), 120.

2. L. Baessler, “Red Light vs. Blue Light: Which Light Color Is Better For Plant Growth,” Gardening Know How (2015), <www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/info/red-light-vs-blue-light.htm>. Accessed June 3, 2015.

3. S.D. Jackson, “Plant Responses to Photoperiod,” New Phytologist Vol. 181, No. 3, 517 (2009).

4. R.A. Nelson, “Chapter 5: Electro-Culture,” Hemp Husbandry, internet edition (2000), <www.rexresearch.com/hhusb/hh5elc.htm>. Accessed January 11, 2014.

5. D. Augaitis and D. Lander, eds., Radio Rethink: Art, Sound and Transmission (Banff: Banff Centre Press, 1994), 72.

6. G. Hertz, TV + Beans (1995), <http://www.conceptlab.com/tvbeans/index.html>. Accessed March 19, 2016.

7. E. Kac, Teleporting an Unknown State (1994), <www.ekac.org/teleporting.html>. Accessed January 15, 2015.

8. M.R. Robertson, “300+ Hours of Video Uploaded to YouTube Every Minute,” Reelseo (2014), <www.reelseo.com/youtube-300-hours/>. Accessed December 10, 2015.

9. Cisco, “The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis” (May 2015), <www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.pdf>. Accessed July 24, 2015.

10. M. Rabinovich and Y. Girdhar, “Gaining Insight Into Films Via Topic Modeling & Visualization,” Parsons Journal of Information Mapping Vol. 7, No. 1, 3–5 (Spring 2015).

11. G. Gessert, “Notes on Genetic Art,” Leonardo Vol. 26, No. 3, 205 (1993).

12. B. Zics, “Toward an Affective Aesthetics: Cognitive-Driven Interaction in the Affective Environment of the Mind Cupola,” Leonardo Vol. 44, No. 1, 31–37 (2011).

13. A. Ramírez Gaviria, “When Is Information Visualization Art?: Determining the Critical Criteria,” Leonardo Vol. 41, No. 5, 479–482 (2008).

14. C. Voon, “Growing a Garden According to the Economics of Philanthropic Crowdfunding,” Hyperallergic (2016), <hyperallergic.com/261458/growing-a-garden-according-to-the-economics-of-philanthropic-crowdfunding>. Accessed January 12, 2016.

15. W. van Eck and M.H. Lamers, “Hybrid Biological-Digital Systems in Artistic and Entertainment Computing,” Leonardo Vol. 46, No. 2, 154 (2013)

16. K. Anderson, “Object Intermediaries: How New Media Artists Translate the Language of Things,” Leonardo Vol. 47, No. 4, 357 (2014).

17. Ibid., 356.

18. A. Ramírez Gaviria, “When Is Information Visualization Art?: Determining the Critical Criteria,” Leonardo Vol. 41, No. 5, 482 (2008).

19. J. Parikka, The Anthrobscene (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014), 35.

20. D. Wilkes, “Thriving Since 1960, my Garden in a Bottle: Seedling Sealed in its Own Ecosystem and Watered Just Once in 53 Years,” The Daily Mail (January 24, 2013), <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2267504/The-sealed-bottle-garden-thriving-40-years-fresh-air-water.html>. Accessed April 13, 2016.

21. K. Goldberg, ed., The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001), 182.

22. L. Paraguai Donati and G. Prado, “Artistic Environments of Telepresence on the World Wide Web,” Leonardo Vol. 34, No. 5, 438 (2001).

23. V. Chivukula and S. Ramaswamy, “Effect of Different Types of Music on Rosa Chinensis Plants,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Development Vol. 5, No. 5, 431–434 (2014).

24. M.E. Collins and J.E.K. Foreman, “The Effect of Sound on the Growth of Plants,” Canadian Acoustics Vol. 29, No. 2, 1–8 (2001).

Re-Visioning the Interface: Technological Fashion as Critical Media Susan Elizabeth Ryan SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

This paper elucidates two positions (the positivist and the critical) that inform the creative design of technological fashion. On the one side is the instrumentalist trend toward the minimized or disappear-ing interface. On the other, some theorists and artists suggest that increased invisibility presents social and ethical concerns (such as invasiveness and control) when networking and communication devices are involved.

The positivist side has roots in modernist design. Positivist designers create responsive and control-lable fabrics using shape-changing polymers, e-textiles, and nano-scale electronics to resolve clumsy and prohibitive problems of hardware vs. body. The critical side draws upon archetypal ideas about technology and the body that are familiar from literature and science fiction, and includes writers and media artists who emphasize the intractable or mechanic nature of technological clothing to enhance, rather than erase, the body. The paper concludes that both positions must be considered as the field of technological fashion moves forward.

1. William Gibson, Neuromancer (New York: Ace Books, 2000) 66-67, original publication 1984.

2. http://www.design.philips.com/probes/projects/dresses/index.page,and http://news.softpedia.com/news/Flammable-Ego-Philips-lights-Up-Your-Inner-Self-74355.shtml.

3. http://www.primidi.com/2008/10/15.html.

4. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/May07/nanofibers.fashion.aj.html.

5. Smart Second Skin Dress: http://www.smartsecondskin.com/main/scentsorydesign.htm.

6. Gilles Lipovetsky, The Empire of Fashion: Dressing Modern Democracy, trans. Catherine Porter (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994) 264.

7. Bernadette Wegenstein, Getting Under the Skin: The Body and Media Theory (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2006) 12-13.

8. Lipovetsky, The Empire of Fashion, 131.

9. Berzowska, “Electronic Textiles: Wearable Computers, Reactive Fashion, and Soft Computation,” Textile, Vol. 3, No. 1, 16 (2005).

10. Susan Elizabeth Ryan, “A Virtual Interview With Geert Lovink,” Intelligent Agent, Vol. 8, No. 1 (2008).

11. Gilles Deleuze, “Postscript on Societies of Control” (October 1988), reprinted in The Cybercities Reader, ed. Stephen Graham (London: Routledge, 2004) 73-77.

12. Peter Galloway, The Exploit (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2007) 78.

13. Andraž Petrovčič, “Reconfiguring Socialities: The Personal Networks of ICT Users and Social Cohesion,” tripleC, Vol. 6, No. 2, 163 (2008).

REALational Perspectives: Strategies for Expanding Beyond the Here-and-Now in Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) Art Liron Efrat SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Social Connections. Heritage, and Technological Realities Paper

This paper analyzes AR installations to demonstrate different strategies for producing a relational sense of place and time. By exposing actual environments as constructed (and, therefore, as virtual) landscapes, AR art exposes our situatedness and becomes a strong tool for activism that encourages us to think beyond familiar reality.

AI/Machine Learning, Scientific Visualization, and VR
Reality Versus Imagination Paul Brown SIGGRAPH 1992: Art Show Paper

Fifteen years ago I exhibited some work that explored unusual perturbations in otherwise consistent color interpolation. The gallery was a part of University College, London and several scientists saw the show. One, a Polish mathematician and physicist called Andre Lissowski, chased me up. He was interested in the work I had done and wondered if it bore any relationship to other contemporary research into what ore now called non-linear phenomena-port of the field fashionably dubbed Chaos. Chaos studies were still an underground activity at that time and Andre took me along to small back rooms at the Royal Institution and ancient London Colleges where mostly young scientists along with the occasional Nobel laureate discussed the fantastic new ideas that were emerging worldwide.

[View PDF]
RealSnailMail [RSM] Vicky Isley and Paul Smith SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
Record One Message to The Person You Love! Sheng-Chieh Wang, Chia-Hsiang Lee, Pey-Chwen Lin, Johnson Liew, Jie-Jun Zhu, and Chih-Hsuan Yu SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

The title, “Record One Message to The Person You Love!”, invite the audience to stand in front of the voice reception installation and say a few words to their loved ones. These messages will be processed by the processing computer program in real-time and converted into dynamic data images according to audience’s volume and frequencies of voices. The messages can also be immediately converted into 3D printing model files, which can then be printed into unique white vinyl disc-shaped objects engraved with each person’s own identity markings. In the end, each of the 3D printed objects will be displayed on the wall. Audience will be able to use the AR interface on the mobile device to replay the messages and videos corresponding to each of the 3D prints. Also expresses the feelings one has towards a lover through just a few words during interaction with the work.

Through this work, we discuss how in the digital age, all of our messages may someday become souvenirs to be stored, printed, and replayed records. Through exhibition in different countries and locations, and the collection of messages to their loved ones by a large number of people, this installation has the potential to become a big database. Gradually, with an ever increasing number of messages recorded, it might even become a museum for sound and memory. Also expresses the feelings one has towards a lover through just a few words during interaction with the work.

Recovering History: Critical and Archival Histories of the Computer-Based Arts Paul Brown SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

During the 1960s, artists first began to get involved with digital computing. By 1968, it was possible for Jasia Reichardt to curate a survey of digital work in the influential Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition held at London’s Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA). The show went on to tour the United States and Japan, and many young artists were inspired to get involved with computers after seeing it.

1. CACHe – Computer Arts, Contexts, Histories, etc., www.bbk.ac.uk/hafvm/cache/, info@cache.bbk.ac. uk

2. Jones, Stephen. Synthetics: Towards a history of computer art in Australia. Synthetics: The electronically generated Image in Australia. Leonardo, 36 (2), April 2003. The evolution of computer art in Australia. Computer Art Journal, 1, 2003, Europia Editions, France. sj ones@cu tu re.com.au

3. The Leonardo/0ats: Pionniers & Precurseurs (Pioneers & Pathbreakers), www.olats.org/setF4.html, annickb@altern.org

4. SEA Digital Archive Project,www.isea-web.arg/eng/projects.html,s.c.gollifer@bton.ac.uk

5. compArt – a structured space for computer art, www.agis.informatik.uni-bremen.de, nake@informatik.uni-bremen.de

6. Grau, Oliver. VIRTUAL ART – From illusion to immersion. The M.I.T. Press,J anuary 2003. www.arthist.hu-berlin.de/arthistd/mitarbli/og/og.htm (go to DATABASE – English version), Oliver. Grau@culture.hu-berlin.de

7. The Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art, Science and Technology, Centre for Research and Documentation (CR+ D), www. fondation-lang lois. org/ e/CR D/i ndex. html, i nfo@fondation-langlois.org

8. The Digital Art Museum – DAM, www.dam.org/, Digitalartmuseum@aol.com

9. fineArt forum – the art and technology netnews, www.fineartforum.org, editor@finartforum.org

10. ISEA – the Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts, www.isea-web.org, info@isea-web.org

11. Leonardo Electronic Almanac, mitpress2.mit.edu/e-journals/LEA/, lea@mitpress.mit.edu

12. Ars Electronica, www.aec.at/, info@aec.at

13. Prince, Patric: A brief history of SIGGRAPH art exhibitions: Brave new worlds. Leonardo, Supplemental Issue, Computer Art in Context for ACM SIGGRAPH ’89 Art Show, 1989.

[View PDF] computer art and history
Researching the Future: (CAiiA-STAR and the Planetary Collegium) Roy Ascott SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Panel / Roundtable

Taking the Planetary Collegium as their starting point, members of the round table address research issues as they relate to the development of practice and theory in the context of collaborative criticism and inquiry across a wide field of knowledge and experience. The Collegium network is worldwide, in terms of its meeting and conference locations. the cultural identity of its members, and its ambition to develop nodes based on and complementary to its unique procedures and methodologies.
The Collegium emerges from 10 years of experience with CAiiA-STAR in gathering doctoral and post-doctoral researches of high calibre whose work transcends orthodox subject boundaries, and whose practices are at the leading edge of their fields. We are living in a time in which old cultural and academic structures need to be replaced by research organisms fitted to our telematic, post biological society. The Collegium combines the physical, face-to-face transdisciplinary association of individuals with the nomadic, trans-cultural requirements of a networking community. The panelists, all members of the Collegium at various stages in its development, present their personal visions of the direction future research might take and the structures needed to support it.

Resonant Waves: Immersed in Geometry Angus Graeme Forbes, Richard Grillotti, and Andy DiLallo SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Paper

“Resonant Waves” is a multisensory, immersive, interactive cymatic art installation/experience. This project reveals the natural phenomenon of sound and vibration as it forms intricate visual geometric patterns in water that are generated in real time through user interaction, while also exploring the effects on our physical, mental, and emotional systems.

Rethinking Agency and Immersion: Videogames as a Means of Consciousness-Raising Gonzalo Frasca SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

Until recently, most videogame characters did not reflect our everyday life for the simple reason that most of them were trolls, aliens, and monsters. However, this has changed since the introduction of “The Sims,” the people simulator. Nevertheless, characters in this game are still flat since “The Sims” simulates life in a Disneyland-like way, avoiding ideological conflicts.

Encouraged by authors like Brenda Laurel and Janet Murray, videogame designers have been taking for granted that a high level of agency and immersion are desirable effects. However, I will show that alternative, non-Aristotelian techniques could be used to develop character-driven videogames that enhance critical thinking about ideological issues and social conflicts while keeping the experience enjoyable. I will do this by borrowing some concepts from Bertolt Brecht’s and Augusto Baal’s ideas on non-Aristotelian theater and applying them to videogame design. In this paper, I propose that a modified version of “The Sims” would allow players to create behavioral rules for their characters that reflect their personal opinions. Like in Baal’s Forum Theater, this game would foster critical discussion about social and personal problems.

1. Bleeker, J. (1995). Urban crisis: Pase, present, and virtual, Socialist Review, 24.

2. Boal, A. (1992). Games for actor and 11011-actors. London: Routledge, 1992.

3. T heatre of the Oppressed. TCG, New York. 1985.

4. Bruckman, A. (1998). Community Support for Constructionist Learning: www.cc.gatech.edu/fad Amy.Bruckman/papers/cscw.html

5. Foster, E.M. (1995). Aspects of the novel. Harcourt Brace, 1995.

6. Frasca, G. (1998). Don’t play it again, Sam: One-session games of narration: cmc.uib.no/dac 98/papers/frasca.html

7. Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum, 2000.

8. Fullop, R. (1993). Quoted by Scott Rosenberg: “The Latest Action Heroes”. Wired Magazine, March I, 1993.

9. Kafai, Y. (1995). Minds in play: Computer game design as a context for children’s teaming. Laurel Erlbaum, 1995.

10. Laurel, Brenda (1993). Computers as theatre. London: Addison Wesley, 1993. 11. Murray,). (1997). Hamlet

11. the holodeck. Free Press, 1997.

12. Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the lntemet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.

13. Willet,). (editor). (199). Brecht 011 theatre: The developmetlt of an aesthetic. New York: Hill and Wang.

14. Wright, W. (1995). Sim City 2000. Electronic Arts, 1995.

15. The Sims. Electronic Arts, 2000.

[View PDF] consciousness and video games
Rilievo: Artistic Scene Authoring via Interactive Height Map Extrusion in VR Sevinc Eroglu, Patric Schmitz, Carlos Aguilera Martinez, Jana Rusch, Leif Kobbelt, and Torsten W Kuhlen SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Genealogical Visualization, Intimate AI, and VR Paper

An authoring environment for artistic creation in VR enables the effortless conversion of 2D images into 3D objects. Artistic elements are extracted and relief sculpting is performed by mixing height maps generated from the input image. The tool is showcased in an analog-virtual workflow in collaboration with a traditional painter.

Scientific VisualizationVR
Robosophy Philosophy: Übermensch and Magnanimous Predrag K. Nikolic, Sasa Arsovski, and Adrian David Cheok SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

In the project Robosophy Philosophy (Meeting Points: Übermensch and Magnanimous) robot are mixing words of Aristotle and Nietzsche (and their words are everybody words) based on calculations and algorithms. If grammar is the “metaphysics of the people,” as Nietzsche claimed, then discussions in the installation is “metaphysics of the machines” and as such ant-words or anarchistic grammar. It is a vision of transfer of knowledge in the future and present criticism of society and technoculture which is allowing brutal destruction of human context replaced with artificial and superficial. Key technical novelty presented in Installation Robosophy Philosophy is the combination of chatbot technologies and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) models that will enable reinforcement learning in order to create artificial conversational agents who will achieve human level performance. The fact, that things can communicate with each other and with the humans enables unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning and knowledge multiplying opportunities.

Robotype: Studies of Kinetic Typography by Robot Display for Expressing Letters, Time and Movement Yuichiro Katsumoto SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives Art Papers Session #2 Paper

Humans use letters, which are two-dimensional static symbols, for communication. Writing these letters requires body movement as well as spending a certain amount of time; therefore, it can be demonstrated that a letter is a trajectory of movement and time. Based on this notion, the author conducted studies regarding multidimensional kinetic typography, primarily using robots to display a letter and visualize its time and movement simultaneously. This paper describes
the project background and design of the three types of robotic displays that were developed and discusses possible expressions using robotic displays.

  1. Yuichiro Katsumoto, “One-stroke,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Art Gallery (2016).
  2. Yuichiro Katsumoto, “7×7,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Art Gallery (2017).
  3. J. Clar, “3D Display Cube” (2003): <www.jamesclar.com/portfolio_page/3d-display-cube-2002-2009/>.
  4. H. Kimura, T. Uchiyama and H. Yoshikawa, “Laser Produced 3D Display in the Air,” in Proceedings of ACMSIGGRAPH 2006 Emerging Technologies (2006).
  5. J.N. Sears, “ e Orb,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2008 Art Gallery (2008).
  6. Y. Sudo and M. Inakage, “YS-3: Multi-Layered Interactive Animation Device,” in Proceedings of ACMSIGGRAPH 2008 Posters (2008).

    7. N. Bernier, “Frequencies (Light Quanta)” (2014): <www.nicolasbernier.com/page/works.htm>.
    8. ART+COM, “Kinetic Rain” (2012): <https://artcom.de/en/project/kinetic-rain/>.
    9. S. Follmer et al., “inFORM: Dynamic Physical A ordances and Constraints rough Shape and Object

    Actuation,” in Proceedings of ACM UIST 2013 (2013).
    10. H. Nii et al., “Fuwa-Vision: An Auto-Stereoscopic Floating-Image Display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH

    Asia 2012 Emerging Technologies (2012).
    11. S. Yoshida, “f VisiOn: Interactive Glasses-Free Tabletop 3D Images Floated by Conical Screen and Modular

    Projector Arrays,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2015 Emerging Technologies (2015).
    12. J. Maeda, Maeda @ Media (London: ames & Hudson, 2000).
    13. Y. Ahn and G. Jin, “TYPE+CODE II: A Code-Driven Typography,” Leonardo 49, No. 2, 168 (2016).
    14. J.D. Boulter and D. Gromala, Windows and Mirrors: Interaction Design, Digital Art, and the Myth of Transparency

    (Cambridge, MA: e MIT Press, 2003) pp. 12–15.
    15. J. Nimoy, “Robotic Typography” (2002–2004): <http://cdn.jtn.im/robotictype/>.
    16. Greyworld, “ e Source” (2004): <http://greyworld.org/>.
    17. J. Popp, “Bit.Fall” (2001–): <https://vimeo.com/22396196/>.
    18. B. Shapiro, “Pipedream” (1999–2006): <www.taomc.com/pipe-dream>.
    19. T. Kimura and Y. Kakehi, “MOSS-xels: Slow Changing Pixels Using the Shape of Racomitrium Canescens,” in

    Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2014 Posters (2014).
    20. Y. Sugiura et al., “Gra ti Fur: Turning Your Carpet Into a Computer Display,” in Proceedings of ACM

    SIGGRAPH 2014 Emerging Technologies (2014).
    21. T. Brook and A. Shaughnessy, Supernew Supergraphics [Unit 16] (London: Unit Editions, 2010).
    22. Shigeo Fukuda, Shigeo Fukuda DESIGN Years Old Saiyuki [ggg Books separate volume 6] (Tokyo: DNP

    Foundation for Cultural Promotion, 2008) (written in Japanese).
    23. T. Medicus, “Emergence Lab” (2015): <http://thomasmedicus.at/emergence-lab/>. 24. DST Robot Co., Ltd.: <www.dongburobot.com/>.
    25. N. Kadoma, “Misaki Font” (2006): <www.geocities.jp/littlimi/misaki.htm>.
    26. Katsumoto [2].

Schizophrenia and Narrative in Artificial Agents Phoebe Sengers SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

In recent years, computer graphics has turned to AI techniques in order to simplify the problem of modeling moving objects for rendering. By modeling the minds of graphically represented creatures, their movements can be directed automatically through AI algorithms and need not be directly controlled by the designer. But what kind of baggage do these AI algorithms bring with them? Here I will argue that predominant AI approaches to modeling agents result in behavior that is fragmented, depersonalized, lifeless, and incomprehensible. Drawing inspiration from narrative psychology and anti-psychiatry, I will argue that agent behavior should be narratively understandable and present an agent architecture that structures behavior to be comprehensible as narrative.

The approach I take in this essay is a hybrid of critical theory and AI agent technology. It is one example of a critical technical practice: a cultural critique of AI practice instantiated in a technical innovation. In the final section of this paper, I will describe the theoretical and practical foundations of the critical technical practice pursued here, which I term socially situated AI.

1. Philip E. Agre (1997). Computation and human experience. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press, 1997.

2. Susan B. (1991). The dinosaur man: Tales of madness and enchantment from the back
ward. New York: Edward Burlingame Books, 1991.

3. Blumberg, B. (1996). Old tricks, new dogs: Ethology and imeractive creatures. PhD
Thesis, MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, MA, 1996.

4. Blumberg, B. & Galyean, T. A. (1995). Multi-level direction of autonomous creatures
for real-time virtual environments. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 95.

5. Brooks, R. A. (1990). Elephants don’t play chess. In Pattie Maes, ed., Designing
autonomous agents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

6. Brooks, R. A. (1997). From earwigs to humans. Robotics and Autonomous Systems,
20, (2-4), 291-304.

7. Bruner, J. (1990). Actual minds, possible world.J. MA: Harvard University Press,

8. Bruner, J. (1990).Actsofmeaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

9. Dennett, D. (1987). The intentional stance. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.

10. Foner, L. (1993). What’s an agent, anyway? URL: foner.www.media.mit.edu/people/foner/Julia/Julia.html
Published in a revised version in The Proceedings of the
First International Conference 011 Autonomous Agents (AA ’97).

11. Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: ‘&:mys on the social situation of mental patients and
other inmates. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1961.

12. Janet, P. (1889). L’Automatisme psychologique: Essai de psychologie experimentale sur
les formes inferieures de l’activite humaine. Paris: Ancienne Librairie Germer
Bailliere et Cie, 1889. Ed. Felix Alcan.

13. L1ing, R. D. (1960). The divided self An existential study in sanity and madness.
Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1960.

14. L1ing, R.D. & Esterson, A. (1970). Sanity, madness, and the family. Middlesex, UK:
Penguin Books, Ltd., 1970.

15. Loyall, A. B. (1997). Believable agents: Building interactive personalities. PhD thesis,
Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, CMU-CS-97-123.

16. Loyall, A. B. & Bates, J. Hap: A reactive, adaptive architecture for agents. Carnegie
Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Technical Report CMU-CS, 91-147.

17. Mateas, M. (2000). Expressive Al. SIGGRAPH 2000 Electronic Art and Animation
Catalog, 2000.

18. Penny, S. (1997). Embodied cultural agents at the intersection of robotics, cognitive
science, and interactive art. In Dautenhahn Kerstin, ed., Socially intelligent agents:
Papm from the 1997 fall symposium, AAI Press. Menlo Park, CA, 103-105, A 1997.

19. Perlin, K. & Goldberg, A. (1996). lmprov: A system for scripting interactive actors
in virtual worlds. Computer Graphics 29, (3).

20. Reilly, W.S.N. (1996). Believable social and emotional agents. PhD thesis, Carnegie
Mellon Univeristy, CMU-CS-96-138.

21. Rey nolds, C. (1999). Steering behaviors for autonomous characters. In 1999 Game
Developers Conference. San Jose, CA, March 1999.

22. Robcar, Jr, J.W. (1991). Reality check. In John G. H. Oakes, ed., !11 the realms of the
1111real: “Insane” writings, 18-19. New York; Four Walls Eight Windows, 1991.

23. Rone, A. (1989). The telephone book: Technology – schizophrenia – electric speech.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

24. Sack, W. Stories & Social Networks (1999). 1999 AAA! Symposium on Narrative
lntellige11ce. Menlo Park, CA: AAA! Press, 1999.

25. Sengers, P. (1998). Anti-boxology: Agent design in cultural context. PhD thesis,
Carnegie Mellon University Department of Computer Science and Program in
Literary and Cultural Theory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1998.

26. Scngers, P. (2000). Narrative intelligence. [n Kerstin Dautenhahn, ed., Human
cognition and social agent technology, advances in consciousness. John Benjamins
Publishing Co, Amsterdam, 2000.

27. Smithers, T. (1992). Taking eliminative materialism seriously: A methodology for
autonomous systems research. In Francisco J. Varela and Paul Bourgine, eds.,
Towards a practice of autonomous systemJ: Proceedings of the First European
Conference on Artificial Life, 31-47. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.

28. Steels, L. (1994)
. The artificial life roots of artificial intelligence. Artificial Life,
1,(1-2), 75-110.

29. Wavish, P. & Graham, M. (1996). A situated action approach to implementing
characters in computer games. AA/, 10.

[View PDF] artificial intelligence and computer graphics
Secrets of Balanced Composition as Seen Through a Painter’s Window: Visual Analyses of Paintings Based on Subset Barycenter Patterns Jin Wan Park SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design Digital Tools, Archives, Memories Paper

In this paper, various paintings are analyzed using the subset barycenter pattern implemented by the author. An image’s or an image group’s subset may reveal genre and artist characteristics. The suggested barycenter pattern analysis can enrich the methods of art history and criticism.

Sensational Technologies Anner Dekker and Vivian van Saaze SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Essay

This paper is part of an ongoing study of performances that make a physical and psychological connection with the public by synthesiz­ing various media such as sound, image, smoke, smell, etc. The research project will focus on the history of the live image and try to connect this to current practices in popular culture and art, for example live video jockey (VJ) performances and interactive-technology-based installation art. For our presentation at SIGGRAPH 2004, we will con­ centrate on three cases that make use of state-of-the-art technology in order to create specific bodily sensations. We will also take their temporal character into account and explore whether, and if so, how these “events” can be presented and preserved for future genera­ tions as part of our cultural heritage.

Barkode www.barkode.nl

Castle, T. (1995). The female thermometer: Eighteenth-century and the invention of the uncanny.
Davies, C. www.immersence.com
�·iessens, E. & Verstappen, M. www.xs4all.nl/-notnot/

Fisher, J. (1997). Relational sense: Towards a haptic aesthetics. PARACHUTE 87, 4-11.
Gigliotti, C. (2002). Reverie, Osmose and Ephemere. n.paradoxa, 9. Grau, 0. (2003). Virtual art. from illusion to immersion. MIT Press Marks, L.U. (2002). Touch, sensuous theory and multi-sensory media. University of Minnesota Press.

Morse, M. (2000). Burnt offerings (incense). Body odours and the o�actory arts in digital culture. Proceedings of ISEA2000.
Sobchack, (2000). What my fingers knew: The cinesthetic subject, or vision in the flesh. In: The Special Effects/Special Affects: Technologies of the Screen. University of Melbourne.

[View PDF]
Shadow Awareness: Enhancing Theater Space Through the Mutual Projection of Images on a Connective Slit Screen Yoshiyuki Miwa, Shiroh Itai, Takabumi Watanabe, and Hiroko Nishi SIGGRAPH 2011: Tracing Home in The Age of Networked Techniques Paper

This study discusses media technology that enables the continuous creation of performers’ physical improvisation as inspired by the reflection of imagery evoked from the audience. To realize this, the authors have focused on “shadow media,” which promote the continuous creation of imagery through “bodily awareness.” The authors have developed a system that can project shadows of the performers in various ways, which are then transformed into various shapes and colors. The shadows are connected to the performers’ feet and projected on a “passable” slit screen set up between the stage and the audience. As a result, the interactive and mutual creation of imagery by performers and audience can form an “empathetic” stage. To demonstrate its validity, the authors applied the system to a dance performance at Festival della Scienza in Genoa, Italy.

1. E. Huhtamo, “Elements of Screenology: Toward an Archaeology of the Screen,” International Studies of the Modern Image, Vol. 7, 31–82 (2004).

2. B. James, On Thrones of Gold: Three Javanese Shadow Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970).

3. L. Danforth, “Humour and Status Reversal in Greek Shadow Theatre,” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, Vol. 2, 99–111 (1976).

4. Y. Miwa, et al., “Shadow Awareness: Bodily Expression Supporting System with Use of Artificial Shadow,” Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2009, Part II, LNCS 5611, 226–235 (2009).

5. K. Iida, et al., “Supporting for Creation of Bodily Expression in a Group Activity with Shadow Media,” Proceedings of HIS 2010 (2010) 91–94.

6. S. Fels and K. Mase, “Iamascope: A Musical Application for Image Processing,” Proceedings of FG1998 (1998) 610–615.

7. C. Nicolai and M. Peljhan, “Polarm,” YCAM (2010) polar-m.ycam.jp/index_en.html.

8. W. Muench and K. Furukawa, “Bubbles,” ZKM (2000) hosting.zkm.de/wmuench/bubbles.

9. J. Lewis, et al., “Night Lights” (2010) yesyesno.com/night-lights.

10. MSNBC, “NewsBreaker” (2007) www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24114408/.

11. L. Candy and E. Edmonds, “Interaction in Art and Technology,” Crossings: Electronic Journal of Art and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (2002) crossings.tcd.ie/.

12. M. Krueger, Artificial Reality 2 (Boston: Addison Wesley Professional, 1991).

13. K. Vincs and J. McCormick, “Touching Space: Using Motion Capture and Stereo Projection to Create a ‘Virtual Haptics’ of Dance,” Leonardo, Vol. 43, No. 4, 359–366 (2010).

14. D. Manabe, “True,” YCAM (2007) www.youtube.com/watch?v=xG6rBB4VYJ0&feature=player_embedded#at=44.

15. J. Watanabe, et al., “Test-patches” (2001) www.66bcell.com/test-patches-1/.

16. A. Camurri, et al., “Mappe per Affetti Erranti: A Multimodal System for Social Active Listening and Expressive Performance,” Proceedings of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (2008).

17. Y. Miwa and C. Ishibiki, “Shadow Communication: System for Embodied Interaction with Remote Partners,” Proceedings of CSCW 2004 (2004) 467–476.

18. J. Bitton, “Flirting Across a Distance: How a Screen Creates Intimacy with the Shadow,” Ambidextrous, Fall 2008, 32–33 (2008).

19. R. Wechsler, F. Weiß, and P. Dowling, “EyeCon – A Motion Sensing Tool for Creating Interactive Dance, Music and Video Projections,” Proceedings of the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behavior and Cognition (Leeds: University of Leeds, 2004).

20. M. Fernández, “Illuminating Embodiment: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s Relational Architectures,” 4dsocial: Interactive Design Environments, ed. L. Bullivant, AD Architectural Design, 78–87 (2007).

shadow media
Skorpions Joanna Maria Berzowska SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk

SKORPIONS are a collection of kinetic electronic garments that use the shape-memory alloy Nitinol to move and change on the body in slow, organic motions. They have anthropomorphic qualities and can be imagined as parasites that inhabit the skin of the host. They breathe and pulse, controlled by their own internal programming. They are living behavioral kinetic sculptures that exploit characteristics such as control, anticipation, and unpredictability.

SKORPIONS integrate electronic fabrics, soft electronic circuits, specially designed circuit boards, Nitinol, mechanical actuators such as magnets, and traditional textile construction technique. The cut of the pattern, the seams, and other construction details become an important component of engineering design. SKORPIONS are not interactive: their programming does not respond to sensor data. SKORPIONS shift and modulate personal and social space by imposing physical constraints on the body. They alter behavior, by hiding or revealing hidden layers, inviting others inside the protective shells of fabric, by erecting breathable walls, or tearing themselves open to divulge hidden secrets.

Smile Tomás Laurenzo SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Smile is a mixed-media installation consisting of a screen in a black box, mounted on the wall. When an interactor smiles, drone-footage of the ruins of Gaza fades in. If the interactor stops smiling, the video stops. It only plays when the interactor widely smiles at it.

Soft Future Richard Wright SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Close Your Eyes. Now, Imagine a World. The World of the Future. What Do You See? Essay

Will you see a technological utopia, a city of gleaming metal spires orbiting spacecraft, a world spared from nuclear annihilation and united by a common belief in the benefits of rational progress? Nowadays, probably not. At most your vision is likely to be an end to recession, economic stability for at least a while, a new order of gray-suited bureaucracy. Perhaps you see nothing at all, just a hazy mist of half-forgotten ideals. But when I close my own eyes there is still something there lurking in the background, like a memory chopped up into disparate fragments. It coagulates, forming an surface-it is the surface of a computer screen.

[View PDF]
SoS Dennis Del Favero and Tomasz Bednarz SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

SoS recreates the experiences of two Syrian asylum seekers as they lose sight of each other during a treacherous ocean voyage from Indonesia to Northern Australia.

Soundspheres: Resonant Chamber Geoffrey Thün, Kathy Velikov, Colin Ripley, Sauvé Lisa, and Wes McGee SIGGRAPH 2012: In Search of the Miraculous Paper

This paper develops a brief historical account of the architectural development of auditory space and identifies the “soundsphere” as an acoustic project that connects the interrelationships between material, spatial form and sound. The instrumental design of the soundsphere has focused on three types of shells: hard, static, and inflexible; physically manipulable; and immaterial (or electroacoustic). This frames a disciplinary and historical context for Resonant Chamber, a prototype-based design research project that develops a kinetic and interactive interior envelope system aimed at transforming the acoustic environment through dynamic spatial, material, and electroacoustic technologies.

1. M. McLuhan, “Inside the Five Sense Sensorium,” The Canadian Architect Vol. 6, No. 6, 50 (1961).

2. M. Treib, Space Calculated in Seconds: The Philips Pavilion, Le Corbusier, Edgard Varèse (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

3. H. Bagenal, “Influence of Buildings on Musical Tone,” Music & Letters Vol. 8, No. 4, 439–441 (October 1927).

4. H. Morgan, ed., Vitruvius: The Ten Books on Architecture (New York: Dover Publications, 1960).

5. Bagenal, 442–443.

6. H. Bagenal, “Bach’s Music and Church Acoustics,” Music & Letters Vol. 11, No. 2, 146–155 (April 1930).

7. F.A. Yates, Theatre of the World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).

8. M. Crunelle, “Is There an Acoustical Tradition in Western Architecture?” First International Conference On Acoustic Ecology (1993), www.wseas.us/elibrary/conferences/skiathos2001/papers/102.pdf (accessed March 10, 2012).

9. E. Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America, 1900–1933 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002).

10. Thompson, Ibid.

11. R.M. Schafer, The Tuning of the World (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1977).

12. K. Velikov, et al., “Toward Responsive Atmospheres: Prototype Exploration Through Material and Computational Systems,” Integration through Computation: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) 2011, 326–333 (2011).

13. J. O’Rourke, How to Fold It: The Mathematics of Linkages, Origami and Polyhedra (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

14. R. Resch, “The Topological Design of Structural and Architectural Systems,” AFIPS Conference
Proceedings Vol. 42, National Computer Conference (1973).

15. T. Tachi, “Rigid-Foldable Thick Origami,” Proceedings of 5OSME, Singapore (2010).

16. E. Corteel et al., “Objective and Subjective Comparison of Electrodynamic and MAP Loudspeakers for Wave Field Synthesis,” AES 30th International Conference (2007).

17. V.M.A. Peutz, “The Variable Acoustics of the Espace de Projection of IRCAM,” Proceedings of the 59th AES Convention (1978).

soundsphere, acoustics, and electroacoustic
Souvenirs du monde des montagnes Camille Scherrer, Julien Pilet, Vincent Lepetit, and Pascal Fua SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

This paper describes a particular book called Souvenirs du monde des montagnes, which draws its iconography from the history of a Swiss mountain family from 1910 to 1930. By simply dipping into the first few pages, the reader will be lost between real and virtual universes, wonder about the evolution of the images’ meanings, and question an object’s true content. This setup, developed using state-of-the-art computer vision technology, offers unprecedented freedom: we can make technological references disappear to place the user in fruitful turmoil between visible and hidden meanings. The shadow of a bird flies over the pages, foxes’ lanterns light up the text, paper mountains emerge. Once the last page has been turned, the reader will never look at books in the same way again.

1. M. Bataille, ABC3d (Paris: Albin Michel Jeunesse, 2008).

2. M. Billinghurst, H. Kato, I. Poupyrev, “The MagicBook—Moving Seamlessly Between Reality and Virtuality,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 3, 6-8 (2001).

3. R. Grasset, A. Duenser, M. Billinghurst, “The Design of a Mixed-Reality Book: Is It Still a Real Book?,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, 99-102 (2008).

4. T. Saso, K. Iguchi, and M. Inakage, “Little red: Storytelling in mixed reality,” Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Sketches & Applications (2003).

5. Atlantica Der grosse Weltatlas (Munich, Germany: Wissenmedia GmbH, 2008).

6. M. Fujihata, “Beyond Pages,” Leonardo, Vol. 35, No. 5, 545 (2002).

7. H. Kato, M. Billinghurst, I. Poupyrev, K. Imamoto, K. Tachibana, “Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top AR Environment,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Augmented Reality, 111-119 (2000).

8. M. Ozuysal, P. Fua, and V. Lepetit, “Fast Keypoint Recognition in Ten Lines of Code,” Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (Minneapolis, MN, 2007).

9. http://cvlab.epfl.ch/software/ferns.

10. Media & Interaction Design, ECAL/University of Art and Design, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Spacequatica Ed Cookson SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
SPACE|R A C E Colette Gaiter SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Sketch / Art Talk

SPACE|R A C E, an interactive multimedia piece about the 1960s U.S. Civil Rights movement and space program, encourages viewers to experience paradox and ambiguity as natural parts of human existence in a complex world.

[View PDF] history, interactive, and multimedia
Stepping Inside the Classification Cube: An Intimate Interaction With an AI System Avital Meshi and Angus Graeme Forbes SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Genealogical Visualization, Intimate AI, and VR Paper

The “Classification Cube” art installation invites participants to become familiar with a machine learning classification system which estimates their age, gender, emotion, and actions. Rapidly changing results encourage participants to actively perform their behavior to the system and alter the way it “sees” them.

Scientific VisualizationVR
Super-Natural: Digital Life In Eastern Culture In Dae Hwang, Mark Guglielmetti, and Vince Dziekan SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

We examine how digital media technologies are predominantly framed through a cultural Western lens then advance the proposition that by framing digital media technologies through an Eastern lens we may better understand how digital media and digital systems can promote a sense or perception of “technology-being-with-us”.

Superanimism: The practice of formalised imagery Richard Wright SIGGRAPH 1991: Art and Design Show Paper

This essay discusses the dichotomy between visual, animated images and the abstract computer program that generates them. This digital and numerical base adds an extra dimension to the animation, whereby the creative experience is divided into a number of different levels.

Digital images are informed by the status of their algorithmic source, creating in the viewer a kind of numerical perception, thereby introducing scientific knowledge into our understanding of the visual. But because of the computer’s formalism and arbitrariness, the relation between algorithmic source and the electronic visual effect is not stable. Imagery is of a different experiential type to logical structures, and this causes their disjuncture or alienation, although they are logically and deterministically connected. Thus synthetic images do not appear “human” or manmade but objective or “natural,” like photographs.

The underlying algorithm is so contingent that in terms of being an accessible entity it hardly exists at all without reference to its sensory manifestations. The actual substance of the animate is diffused into so many different levels at once, it loses its ontological identity. These effects lead to a description of a computer animation as an object able to vitalize both tangible and intangible spaces and become a super-animate.

[View PDF]
SwarmVision: Autonomous Aesthetic Multi-Camera Interaction George Legrady, Danny Bazo, and Marco Pinter SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

A platform of exploratory networked robotic cameras was created, informing new directions in computer vision engineering and utilizing an aesthetic approach to experimentation. Initiated by research in autonomous swarm robotic camera behavior, SwarmVision is an installation consisting of multiple Pan-TiltZoom cameras on rails positioned above spectators in an exhibition space, where each camera behaves autonomously based on its own rules of computer vision and control. Each of the cameras is programmed to detect visual information of interest based on a different algorithm, and each negotiates with the other two, influencing what subject matter to study in a collective way. The emergent behaviors of the system suggest potential new approaches in scene reconstruction, video-based behavior analysis and other areas of vision and imaging research.

ELKINS, J. 1999. Interpreting Non-Art Images. In The Domain of Images, Cornell University Press, 31–51.

GOODMAN, N. 1976. “Notation” in the Structure of Art. Indianapolis, IN.

PETERS, G. 2007. Aesthetic Primitives. In Information Visualization (IV’07), 316–325.

[View PDF]
Sympathist Wei-Peng Kuo, Chia-Hsiang Lee, and Jian-Wun Jhemg SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Art from Physics, Art from Biology Sketch / Art Talk

Sympathist attempts to explore scenery as imagined by our brains. In the installation of this bizarre illusion, the unique data and variables of brain waves cause changes in illusions, where brain activity is visualized like cyberspace. The digital age has made cyberspace possible. We devote most of our time into cyberspace to exchange information and knowledge with other people. The prevalence of mobile devices and virtual reality headsets demonstrates that we are getting closer to this illusory space. These thoughts directly influence our brain waves. The civilization which we are so proud of has instead led humanity increasingly further away from the environment. Our five senses, originally meant to accept natural frequencies, have been allured by uncoordinated artificial and digital frequencies, to the extent that we are forgetting our original feelings. People have fallen into the endless loop of cyberspace without realizing it.

cyberspace, virtual reality, and illusion
Synaesthesia Roy Ascott SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Panel / Roundtable

This Panel discusses synesthesia, which typically involves sensory crossover among the basic senses (vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) within the normal range of sensation.

[View PDF]
SyncDon II: Bio-Synchronical Communication Issey Takahashi and Akihito Ito SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

“SyncDon II” aims to transfer emotion to others non-verbally by the heartbeat synchronization, which induced by the stimuli correlated with heartbeat rhythms. Emotions on the rhythms are passed to someone else through the gift-box. “SyncDon II” tries to enhance our communication with the physical synchronicity.

Synchronous Objects for One Flat Thing, reproduced Maria Palazzi and Norah Zuniga Shaw SIGGRAPH 2009: Information Aesthetics Showcase Information Aesthetics: Designing Interactions Panel / Roundtable
Tactile Microcosm of ALife Toshikazu Ohshima SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Tactile Microcosm of ALife offers interaction with artificial organisms, whereby the user can enjoy playing with fish-like organisms through aerial imaging and haptic feedback. The holographic organisms float in water in a petri dish, and the user can feel a forcefield of the vital of the organisms via force feedback.

Teaching Cyber Art, Or How A Painter Copes With Computers In London James Faure Walker SIGGRAPH 1995: Digital Gallery Paper

Walking back from my paint­ing studio on a summer evening, looking up at the electronic flicker of TVs, I do wonder … how can a painting do anything in a living room? Does the future lie in the hands of the cyber artist? Hold on. I am a painter, and I use com­puters, and that combination makes a lot of sense, though nowhere in England can you study – or teach – the two together. Computer work is a different kind of art because it’s cyber-this or cyber-that? Oh. Even when it’s flavor-free? At ISEA 5 in Helsinki I wan­dered out of the interactive show and got absorbed in the early 20th Century Finnish painting next door, self por­traits in log cabins, a solitary fir tree losing its snow. Spring. I resolve to give my work more of a lived-in texture, make it connect with what I saw, give it a temperature, make it more reflective.

[View PDF]
Technophobia Dooley Le Cappellaine SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Sitting: The Seat for Virtual Travel Sketch / Art Talk

Technophobia is a collection of original multimedia art in an interactive exhibition. In addition to the original multimedia artwork, the CD-ROM includes a studio visit with each artist.

[View PDF] multimedia and interactive
Telematic and Telepresence Installations Eduardo Kac SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Sketch / Art Talk

My work with telecommunications started in 1985, when I creat­ed a virtual gallery that could be accessed via the videotext sys­tem. Since 1989, I have been working with Ed Bennett on the Ornitorrinco project of telepresence installations. The basic struc­ture of these installations is comprised of a wireless telerobot, reg­ular phone lines (both for vision and remote control), and remote spaces. Viewers become participants as they transport themselves to the remote body and navigate the remote space freely by press­ing the keys on a familiar telephone.

[View PDF] communication, interactive installation, and technology
Temporal Coherence with Digital Color Brian Evans SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema Paper

To structure time with abstract visual materials requires a visual grammar of line, shape and color. Color is especially problematic, difficult to measure in all but the simplest applications; the literature of color theory and harmony is often confusing. To devise a syntax for structuring time with color, one can turn to the concepts of tension-release, of neutral, balanced and weighted color domains and of discrete computer raster images; they help to create and measure time-based color compositions. In para-metrically defined color palettes, Color Study #7 (a computer-generated animated film) demonstrates the application of these ideas to a simple and effective compositional approach. Codifying this now common film-making practice, the author hopes to encourage others interested in aesthetically strengthened visual presentation to explore and develop time-based visual grammars.

  1. J. Ablers, Interaction of Color (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1963); M. E. Chevreul, The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors and Their Applications to the Arts (West Chester, PA: Schiffler, 1854); L. De Grandis, Theory and Use of Color (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984); J. Itten, The Elements of Color (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970).
  2. J. W. von Goethe, Theory of Colors (1810; Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1963).
  3. R. Arnheim, Art and Visual Perception (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974).
  4. B. Evans, “Establishing a Tonic Space with Digital Color,” Leonardo Electronic Art Supplemental Issue (1988) pp. 27-30.
  5. A. R. Smith, “Color Gamut Transform Pairs,” Computer Graphics 12, No. 3 (1978).
  6. D. J. Cox, “Interactive Computer-Assisted RGB Editor (ICARE),” Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Symposium on Small Computers and the Arts (1987).
  7. See Jay Hambidge, The Elements of Dynamics Symmetry (New York: Dover, 1926).
  8. Hambidge [8]; R. Russett and C. Starr, Experimental Animation (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976); John Whitney, Digital Harmony (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980).
  9. Russett and Starr [9].
  10. Whitney [9].
[View PDF]
Terra Mars: When Earth Shines on Mars Through AI's Imagination Shi Weili SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design Spaces, Territories, Perception Paper

Terra Mars presents Mars in the visual style of Earth. An ANN was trained to learn the relation between topographical data and satellite imagery of Earth and was applied to topographical data of Mars to generate imaginary satellite images. This project suggests a new approach to creative applications of AI

The Virtual Harvester Project Johann van der Schijff SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Bending: Corn, Face, and Gender for Social Provocation Sketch / Art Talk

The Virtual Harvester Project is an effort to address the need For global commitment and action to fight one of human society’s most basic problems: food insecurity. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) created the Poverty Clock to illustrate how quickly poverty grows. Each successive digit on the clock indicates another person living on less than $1.00 (U.S.) per day. Synchronized to the Poverty Clock’s ticking, one new plant sprouts on the virtual corn field; yielding approximately 47 plants each minute.

[View PDF] virtual environment and visualization
The 200 Year Continuum Christian Kerrigan SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

The 200 Year Continuum is the producer, recorder, and exhibitor in Christian Kerrigan’s advancing anthology of narratives. Central to Kerrigan’s practice is storytelling and mythmaking as a means of engaging his audience. Kerrigan uses drawing as his primary mode of research into these narratives, which are consequently offered in the form of live internet-feed installations acting as ecological sites, scientific experiments introducing new organic technologies, and digital images of worlds unseen. Each addition acts as a “middle story” within The 200 Year Continuum. In his narrative, The Amber Clock, a ship is grown in the yew forest of Kingley Vale over a period of 200 years. The narrative explores the possibilities of time in relationship to technology and the natural world. In his narrative, artificial and wild systems are choreographed, and the natural production of resin is harvested from the yew trees as a way of measuring time.

1. C. Tisdall, Joseph Beuys, We Go This Way (London: Violette Editions, 1998) 36.

2. Parasol Unit Foundation for Contemporary Art London, Charles Avery The Islanders: An Introduction: http://www.parasol-unit.org/index.php?id=313.

3. N. Spiller, “Deformography: the poetics of cybridised architecture”: http://www.surrealismcentre. ac.uk/papersofsurrealism/journal4/acrobat%20files/Spillerpdf.pdf (2005).

4. I. Gibson, The Shameful Life of Salvador Dalí (London: Faber and Faber, 1997) 157.

5. N. Spiller, Cyber Reader: Vacillating Objects (London: Phaidon, 2002) 306.

6. S. T. Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: http://etext.virginia.edu/stc/Coleridge/poems/Rime_Ancient_Mariner.html.

7. (op. cit.) Gibson.

The Aesthetics and Practice of Designing Interactive Computer Events Stephen Wilson SIGGRAPH 1994: Art and Design Show Paper

Much confusion and hyperbole surrounds discussions of the aes­thetics of interactive computer events. This essay works to clarify some of this confusion by analyz­ing the differences between inter­active and non-interactive events, reviewing the variety of forms included under the umbrella term “interactivity,” and investigating the theoretical rationales offered to support claims of interactivity’s superiority derived from psycho­logical, political, art historical, and techno-historical sources. Building on this analysis, the essay suggests extensions to current GUI design canons that uniquely attend to interactivity as an aesthetic issue. It also investigates the challenging interactivity possibilities of emerg­ing technologies.

[View PDF]
The Aesthetics of Liminality: Augmentation as Artform Patrick Lichty SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

From ARToolkit’s emergence in the 1990s to the emergence of augmented reality (AR) as an art medium in the 2010s, AR has developed as a number of evidential sites. As an extension of virtual media, it merges real-time pattern recognition with goggles (finally realizing William Gibson’s sci-fi fantasy) or handheld devices. This creates a welding of real-time media and virtual reality, or an optically registered simulation overlaid upon an actual spatial environment. Commercial applications are numerous, including entertainment, sales, and navigation. Even though ARbased works can be traced back to the late 1990s, AR work requires some understanding of coding and tethered imaging equipment. It was not until marker-based AR, affording lower entries to usage, as well as geo-locational AR-based media, using handheld devices and tablets, that augmented reality as an art medium would propagate. While one can argue that AR-based art is a convergence of handheld device art and virtual reality, there are intrinsic gestures specific to augmented reality that make it unique. The author looks at some historical examples of AR as well as critical issues of AR-based gestures such as compounding the gaze, problematizing the retinal, and the representational issues of informatic overlays. This generates four gestural vectors, analogous to those defined in “The Translation of Art in Virtual Worlds,” which is examined through case studies. From this, a visual theory of augmentation will be proposed.

1. Lichty, Patrick, “The Translation of Art in Virtual Worlds,” The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 445.

2. Craft, Catherine, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), 202.

3. Massumi, Brian, with Arne De Boever, Alex Murray, and Jon Roffe, “‘Technical Mentality’ Revisited: Brian Massumi on Gilbert Simondon,” Parrhesia No. 7, 37 (2009).

4. Caudell, T.P., and D.W. Mizell, “Augmented Reality: An Application of Heads-Up Display Technology to Manual Manufacturing Processes,” Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences (1992), 659–669.

5. Lichty, Patrick, “The Translation of Art in Virtual Worlds,” The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 444–462.

6. Lichty, Patrick, “Art in the Age of Dataflow,” Variant Analyses: Interrogations of New Media Art and Culture (Amsterdam: Institute for Networked Culture, 2013), 143–157.

7. Frank, Joseph, “Spatial Form in Modern Literature,” The Idea of Spatial Form (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1991).

8. Hughes, Russell, “The Reversible Eschatology of Arakawa and Gins,” INFLeXions No. 6, 80–102.

9. Berry, Rodney, and Ivan Poupyrev, Augmented Groove, <www.mic.atr.co.jp/sspace/> (1999), ATR Research Labs, Kyoto.

10. Williams, Matthew, “Gibson’s Bridge Trilogy,” <storiesbywilliams.com/2012/02/05/gibsons-bridgetrilogy/> (2012).

11. Crypton, Inc., Vocaloid, <www.vocaloid.com> (2014).

12. Verrier, Richard, “‘Virtual 2Pac’ Image Wins Award for Digital Domain,” Los Angeles Times Online, June 25, 2012, <http://articles.latimes.com/2012/jun/25/entertainment/ la-et-ct-digital-domain-tupac-20120625>.

13. Skwarek, Mark, et al., Occupy Wall Street AR, <aroccupywallstreet.wordpress.com/> (2011).

14. Poladian, Mark, “Virtual Masks Could Be the Future of Halloween Costumes, Thanks to Augmented Reality Programs,” International Business Times, October 29, 2013, <www.ibtimes.com/ virtual-masks-could-be-future-halloween-costumes-thanks-augmented-reality-programs-1445884>.

15. Mills, Matt, and Tamara Roukaerts, “Image Recognition That Triggers Augmented Reality,” <www. ted.com/talks/matt_mills_image_recognition_that_triggers_augmented_reality.html> (2012).

16. VML, Mobile Medic, <australia.vml.com/clients/australian-defence-force> (2012).

17. Caudell, T.P., and D.W. Mizell, “Augmented Reality: An Application of Heads-Up Display Technology to Manual Manufacturing Processes,” Proceedings of 1992 IEEE Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences (1992), 659–669.

18. Holmes, Kevin, “Hermaton: Enter the Grid Is an Augmented Reality Architectural Maze,” The Creators Project, <thecreatorsproject.vice.com/blog/ihermaton-enter-the-gridi-an-augmented-realitymaze> (2013).

19. Darf Design (Sahar Fikouhi and Arta Toulami), <www.darfdesign.com/132812/1318702/gallery/ hermaton> (2013).

20. Lichty, Patrick, “The Cybernetics of Performance and New Media Art,” Leonardo Vol. 33, No. 5, 351–354 (October 2000).

21. Karlin, Susan, “Rethinking Public Space: B.C. Biermann’s Augmented Reality Urban Art,” Fast Company, <www.fastcocreate.com/1682447/rethinking-public-space-bc-biermann-s-augmented-realityurban-art> (2011).

22. Lichty, Patrick, Into the Wild/Virtual Kenai (AR Tapestries), <www.voyd.com/sculpture_digital_ tapestries.html> (2014).

23. Crutzen, P.J., and E.F. Stoermer, “The ‘Anthropocene,’” Global Change Newsletter 41, 17–18 (2000).

24. alsione svx, Stay with Miku in Augmented Reality, <www.youtube.com/ watch?v=yRWKFauD6_w&list=UUVUW_vUhHUd_UEtzEysNtCQ&feature=c4-overview> (2013).

25. Tackett, Rachel, “Wanna Sleep Next to Hatsune Miku? There’s an App for That!” Rocketnews24.com, <en.rocketnews24.com/2013/10/08/wanna-sleep-with-hatsune-miku-theres-an-app-for-that/> (2013).

26. Tolentino, Josh, “Get Miku into Bed with Project Diva F’s AR Gimmickry,” Japanator, <www. japanator.com/get-miku-into-bed-with-project-diva-f-s-ar-gimmickry-23496.phtml> (2012).

27. Sterling, Bruce, “Patently Untrue: Fleshy Defibrillators and Synchronised Baseball Are Changing the Future,” Wired, <www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/10/play/patently-untrue> (2013).

28. Lichty, Patrick, “Toward a Culture of Ubiquity,” Variant Analyses: Interrogations of New Media Art and Culture (Amsterdam: Institute for Networked Culture, 2013).

29. Gibson, William, Spook Country (New York: Berkley, 2007), 8.

30. Underkoffer, John, “John Underkoffer: Pointing to the Future of UI,” <www.ted.com/talks/john_ underkoffler_drive_3d_data_with_a_gesture.html> (2010).

31. Sakoff, Hallie, “‘Sight’: Short Film Takes Google Glasses to Their Logical Nightmarish End,” Huffington Post, <www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/03/sight-short-film_n_1739192.html> (2012).

32. Madrigal, Alexis, “Bruce Sterling on Why It Stopped Making Sense to Talk About ‘The Internet’ in 2012,” The Atlantic Online, <www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/12/bruce-sterling-on-whyit-stopped-making-sense-to-talk-about-the-internet-in-2012/266674/> (2012).

33. Con, Mario, “Google’s Project Glass: Experience Augmented Reality Through This Video,” Zans Media, <http://zansmedia.com/blog/google/project-glass-one-day-video-augmented-reality-google-xlabs/> (2012).

34. Meta, Inc., A Morning with Meta, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=p049os77zMk> (2013).

35. Lichty, Patrick, “An Alpha Revisionist Manifesto: White Paper,” Leonardo Vol. 34, No. 5, 443–445 (2001).

36. Miot, Stephanie, “Atheer Labs Crowdfunds Superhero-Like 3D Smart Glasses,” PC Magazine Online, <www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2428601,00.asp> (2013).

37. Lebkowski, Jon, and Bruce Sterling, “Topic 473: Bruce Sterling and Jon Lebkowsky: State of the World 2014,” The Well, <www.well.com/conf/inkwell.vue/topics/473/Bruce-Sterling-and-JonLebkowsky-page01.html> (2014).

38. Sterling, Bruce, “Augmented Reality: Invading the Museum of Modern Art,” Wired, <www.wired. com/beyond_the_beyond/2010/10/augmented-reality-invading-the-museum-of-modern-art/> (2010).

39. Holmes, Brian, Brian Holmes: Profanity and the Financial Markets. A User’s Guide to Closing the Casino (Berlin: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2012).

40. Ibid.

41. Lichty, Patrick, “Digital Anarchy, Social Media and WikiLeaks: Or, Skynet Doesn’t Look Anything Like We Thought It Did,” Variant Analyses: Interrogations of New Media Art and Culture (Amsterdam: Institute for Networked Culture, 2013).

42. Tripp, Stephanie, “Response to Expose, Intervene, Occupy,” <expose-ar.com/?page_id=240> (2012).

43. Szabo, Victoria, and Trudi Abel, Virtual Duke and Digital Durham (versions 1, 2, and 3), <sites.duke. edu/vszabo/projects/virtual-duke-and-durham/> (2010–2012).

The Art of Understanding: Or, A Primer on Why We Study History Patric D. Prince SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

Why did a substantial number of submissions to the SIGGRAPH 2003 Art Gallery demonstrate a lack of knowledge of the history of digital art? There is an art to understanding creative invention that involves information as well as experience and personal preference.

1. Dietrich, frank. Visual intelligence; The first decade of computer art (1965-75). Leonardo, 19(2), 1986, 159-169.

2. Brown, Paul. Personal communication to the author, August, 2002. See a discussion of this in www.paulbrown.com/WORDS/EMCULT.HTM, Emergent Culture. Experimental media arts. Games Theory, 12 MESH.

3. Prince, Patric. Computer aesthetics, ACM/SIGGRAPH 86 Art Show Catalog, 1986, 41.

[View PDF] digital art, history, and information
The Artistic Origins of Virtual Reality Myron W. Krueger SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Essay

The history of virtual reality is often obscured. It is easy to get the impression that the Big Bang occurred at NASA in 1984 and that virtual reality is a triumph of the technical establishment alone. What has been overlooked is the important contributions that artists have made to the development of the field.

[View PDF]
The Bailey-Derek Grammar: Recording the Craft of Wire-Bending in the Trinidad Carnival Varnelle Noel SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft Paper

This paper presents work on the development of a shape grammar that records the dying, undocumented craft of wire-bending in the Trinidad Carnival. This craft is important for the building and continuation of cultural heritage and identity. Due to the lack of prior research in this non-Western design practice, the author conducted site visits, interviews and observations, and visually examined wire-bent artifacts in Trinidad to develop this grammar. This paper presents the materials, steps and shape rules that begin to synthesize the craft, as well as one design. This study and the resulting grammar have positive implications for design education and practice.

1. “Lewicito ‘Cito’ Velasquez.” 2015. Accessed April 2, <www.ncctt.org/50years/index.php/110-mas-stuff/17888-lewicito-cito-velasquez>.

2. Bailey, Albert. 2013. Interview by Vernelle Noel. Personal Interview.

3. Crowley, Daniel J. 1956. “The Traditional Masques of Carnival.” Caribbean Quarterly 4 (3/4): 194–223.

4. Noel, Vernelle A.A. 2013. “Trinidad Carnival: Improving Design through Computation and Digital Technology.” Masters Thesis, Cambridge, Mass: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

5. Stiny, G., and W.J. Mitchell. 1978. “The Palladian Grammar.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 5 (1): 5–18.

6. Reddy, Michael J. 1979. “The Conduit Metaphor: A Case of Frame Conflict in Our Language about Language,” in Metaphor and Thought, 284–97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7. Knight, Terry. 1999. Applications in Architectural Design, and Education and Practice. Report for the NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, <www.shapegrammar.org/education.pdf>.

8. Brown, Ernest D. 1990. “Carnival, Calypso, and Steelband in Trinidad.” The Black Perspective in Music 18 (1/2): 81–100.

9. Martin, Carol. 1998. “Trinidad Carnival Glossary.” TDR (1988-) 42 (3): 220–235.

10. Powell, Kimberly. 2008. “Drumming against the Quiet: The Sounds of Asian American Identity in an Amorphous Landscape,” Qualitative Inquiry 14 (6): 901–925.

11. Ryan, Selwyn D, and Institute of Social and Economic Research. 1991. “Social and Occupational Stratification in Contemporary Trinidad and Tobago.” Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies.

12. Riggio, Milla Cozart. 2004. Carnival: Culture in Action—The Trinidad Experience. New York: Routledge.

13. Jo-Anne Tull. 2005. “Money Matters – Trinidad and Tobago Carnival 2005.” Trinidad and Tobago, <www.academia.edu/326827/_Money_Matters_in_the_Trinidad_Carnival_>.

14. Green, Garth L., and Philip W. Scher. 2007. Trinidad Carnival: The Cultural Politics of a Transnational Festival. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

15. Riggio, Milla Cozart. 2004. Carnival: Culture in Action—The Trinidad Experience. New York: Routledge.

16. Bailey, Albert. 2013. Interview by Vernelle Noel. Phone Interview.

17. Wuest, Ruth. 1990. “The Robber in the Trinidad Carnival.” Caribbean Quarterly 36 (3/4): 42–53.

18. Crowley, Daniel J. 1956. “The Traditional Masques of Carnival.” Caribbean Quarterly 4 (3/4): 194–223.

20. Wuest, Ruth. 1990. “The Robber in the Trinidad Carnival.” Caribbean Quarterly 36 (3/4): 42–53.

21. Derek, Stephen. 2013. Interview by Vernelle Noel. Personal Interview.

22. Mitchell, William J. 1986. “Formal Representations: A Foundation for Computer-Aided Architectural Design,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 13 (2): 133–162.

23. Stiny, G., and W.J. Mitchell. 1978. “The Palladian Grammar.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 5 (1): 5–18.

24. Flemming, U. 1987. “More than the Sum of Parts: The Grammar of Queen Anne Houses,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 14 (3): 323–350.

25. Colakoglu, Birgul. 2005. “Design by Grammar: An Interpretation and Generation of Vernacular Hayat Houses in Contemporary Context,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 32 (1): 141–149.

26. Stiny, George, and James Gips. 1971. “Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture,” in Sciences & Humanities: Models and Applications for the Arts. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia: North Holland Publishing Co.

27. Knight, T.W. 1989. “Transformations of De Stijl Art: The Paintings of Georges Vantongerloo and Fritz Glarner,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 16 (1): 51–98.

28. Agarwal, M., and J. Cagan. 1998. “A Blend of Different Tastes: The Language of Coffeemakers.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 25 (2): 205–226.

29. Knight, T. Weissman. 1980. “The Generation of Hepplewhite-Style Chair-Back Designs,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 7 (2): 227–238.

30. Personal Interview by Vernelle Noel. 2012.

31. Green, Garth L., and Philip W. Scher. 2007. Trinidad Carnival: The Cultural Politics of a Transnational Festival. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

32. Personal Interview by Vernelle Noel. 2013.

33. Personal Interview by Vernelle Noel. 2013.

34. Personal Interview by Vernelle Noel. 2013.

35. This portion of the process steps (computations) in Figure 3 was selected from a larger group of steps for the focus of this paper.

The Bridge Carol Gigliotti SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Essay

In the dream, I am driving over the Charleston Bay Bridge in South Carolina. As I reach the crest of the bridge, my car veers, lifts, and suddenly, without the car, I am flying high over the bridge and the bay. It is snowing, and I am very cold, high in the dark blue night above an even darker blue sea. I realize I am numb. I am dead, I think. It is not an unhappy thought. Thinking I am dead brings a wonderfully exhilarating and freeing sensation. I am at peace.

[View PDF] collaboration, imagination, and technology
The Digital Becomes Contemporary Bruce Wands SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

We are at a special and paradoxical moment in the development of digital art. Now that it is finally gaining widespread public and critical attention, digital art is also being quickly absorbed into the world of contemporary art. The next generation of artists and critics will not look at making art with a computer as something extraordinary or unusual. This phenomenon is already quite apparent in galleries in New York and abroad. While galleries like Postmasters and Bitforms specialize in new-media art, numerous other galleries in Chelsea exhibit similar work, but do not make the distinction that it is new-media art. Another growing trend in New York is for artists to display prints along with new media as an integral part of the exhibition. The return to the object is due in part to the recent widespread availability of archival printing methods. Museums are also in the process of refitting to accommodate the next wave of contemporary art. The Museum of Modern Art in New York has closed for two years to update its galleries, and the Stedelijk Museum of Modern Art in Amsterdam is planning a major renovation for 2004. For those of us who have followed the SIGGRAPH Art Gallery for many years, this acceptance of digital art by the contemporary art world is refreshing, but also raises many questions. Digital art has operated outside the art establishment for many years, and this has allowed it to remain relatively free.

[View PDF] digital art and history
The Dual Skins of a Media Façade: Explicit and Implicit Interactions Claude Fortin and Kate Hennessy SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft Paper

In the fall of 2013, Mégaphone, an architectural-scale interactive “Speakers’ Corner,” was deployed outdoors after dusk in downtown Montréal, Canada. This urban art installation included a monumental media façade designed to display a transcription of some of the words uttered into the microphone by end users. Driven by the system’s two temporal modalities—a performative “live mode” and an archival “sleep mode”—the video projections revealed the dual skins of a media façade that spanned almost an entire city block. This article examines how activists appropriated Mégaphone to transform an ordinary building into an urban mausoleum.

1. Sharon Zukin, The Culture of Cities (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1995) p. 16 quoted in Eric Gordon, The Urban Spectator: American Concept Cities from Kodak to Google (Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College Press; University Press of New England, 2010) p. 171.

2. Gordon [1] p. 175.

3. Liliana Bounegru, “Interactive Media Artworks for Public Space: The Potential of Art to Influence Consciousness and Behavior in Relation to Public Space,” in Kate Brennan, Scott McQuire and Meredith Martin, eds., Urban Screens Reader (pp. 199-215), (Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Institute of Network Cultures, 2009) p. 199.

4. Scott McQuire, The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space (Los Angeles; London: Sage Publications, 2008) pp. 150-155.

5. Most of the works in Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s Relational Architecture series propose new forms of interaction that challenge traditional conceptions of the public sphere, but some — such as Body Movies (2001) and Voz Alta (2008) — also raise interesting issues around archival politics germane to the case study presented in this article, <www.lozano-hemmer.com/index.php>.

6. Partenariat du Quartier des spectacles and l’Office national du film du Canada, “Mégaphone de Moment Factory, projet retenu à l’appel d’idées Parti Pris Pluriel, ” Montréal Quartier des Spectacles — Media, 5 September 2012, three-page internal document.

7. Étienne Paquette, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 26 August 2014, ~26min.

8. Étienne Paquette, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 26 August 2014, ~60min.

9. Alexandre Lupien, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 4 September 2014, ~38min.

10. For a detailed description of Mégaphone’s interfaces and system architecture, see Claude Fortin, “Harvesting the Interactive Potential of Digital Displays in Public Space: The Poetics of Public Interaction,” (PhD dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Canada, forthcoming) chapter 5.

11. Detailed accounts, interviews and video evidence of both these cases are broadcast in the French-language news report by Alain Abel and Sylvie Fournier, “À armes inégales,” Émission Enquête, Radio-Canada, 28 February, 2013, <http://ici.radio-canada.ca/emissions/enquete/2012-2013/Reportage.asp?idDoc=274891>.

12. Alexandre Lupien, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 31 July 2014, ~16min.

13. Didier Berry, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 20 January 2014, ~9min.

14. Michael Wesch, “An Anthropological Introduction to YouTube,” YouTube—Broadcast Yourself, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, USA, 26 June, 2008, ~29min, <http://youtu.be/TPAO-lZ4_hU>.

15. Serge Lavoie, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 20 January 2014, ~32min.

16. Serge Lavoie, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 20 January 2014, ~29min.

17. Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002) p. 231; see also Gordon [1] pp. 194-195.

18. Serge Lavoie, interview conducted by Claude Fortin on 20 January 2014, ~3min.

19. Tim McSorley, “These Artist-Activists Projected Anti-Police Brutality Images on Montreal Police Headquarters,” Vice, 30 June 2014, para. 1, <www.vice.com/en_ca/read/we-hung-out-with-activist-collective-the-illuminators-while-they-projected-anti-police-brutality-images-on-montreal-police-headquarters400>.

20. McSorley [19], para. 2; para. 19.

21. A complete catalogue of Shimon Attie’s work is available on his official website, <http://shimonattie.net/portfolio/the-writing-on-the-wall/>; see [5] for a similar online archive of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s art installations; finally, an overview of Kryzystof Wodiczko’s videoprojections are discussed in Derek May’s (1991) documentary film, Kryzystof Wodiczko’s Projections, <www.nfb.ca/film/krzysztof_wodiczko_projections>.

22. Marie-Joëlle Corneau, “Two Major Works to be Unveiled this Coming October 8 as Part of BNLMTL 2014, L’avenir (Looking Forward),” Montréal Quartier des Spectacles — Media, 2 October 2014, para.4, <http://medias.quartierdesspectacles.com/pdf/press/en/2014/pr_wodiczko-hayeur-ang.pdf>.

The Electric "Now Indigo Blue": Synthetic Color and Video Synthesis Circa 1969 Carolyn Kane SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

Circa 1969, a few talented electrical engineers and pioneering video artists built video synthesizers capable of generating luminous and abstract psychedelic colors that many believed to be cosmic and revolutionary, and in many ways they were. Drawing on archival materials from Boston’s WGBH archives and New York’s Electronics Arts Intermix, this paper analyzes this early history in the work of electronics engineer Eric Siegel and Nam June Paik’s and Shuya Abe’s Paik/Abe Video Synthesizer, built at WGBH in 1969. The images produced from these devices were, as Siegel puts it, akin to a “psychic healing medium” used to create “mass cosmic consciousness, awakening higher levels of the mind, [and] bringing awareness of the soul.” While such radical and cosmic unions have ultimately failed, these unique color technologies nonetheless laid the foundation for colorism in the history of electronic
computer art.

I. Hays, Ron, “Music & Video Feedback/Video Light,” unpublished technical memo, 7.

2. Siegel, Eric, “T V as a Creative Medium” (New York: The Howard Wise Gallery, 1969) 8.

3. Youngblood, Gene, Expanded Cinema (New York: Dutton, 1970) 285.

4. Sandin, Dan, et al., ”A Color Video Collaborative Process,” WGBH archives, January 26, 1973.

5. Siegel, Eric, “Statement” (New York: Electronic Arts Intermix, 2001) 2.

6. Yalkut, Jud, “The Electronic Video Synthesizer: Interview with Eric Siegel by Jud Yalkuc”
(New York: Electronic Arts Intermix, 1970-1973).

7. Vasulka, Woody, “EVS Electronic Video Synthesizer” (New York: Electronic Arcs Intermix).

8. Siegel, Eric, “Patent for the Invention of the Video Color Synthesizer” (New York: Electronic Arts
Intermix, 1972) 2.

9. Vasulka, Woody, “EVS Electronic Video Synthesizer” (New York: Electronic Arcs Intermix) 120.

IO. Schier, Jeffrey, “The Eric Siegel EVS Synthesizer,” Eigenwelt der Apparate-Welt: Pioneers of Electronic Art, ed. David Dunn (Linz: ARS Electronica, 1992).

II. Ibid.

12. Yalkut, Jud, “The Electronic Video Synthesizer: Interview with Eric Siegel by Jud Yalkut,”
(New York: Electronic Arts Intermix, 1970-1973) 1-3.

13. Anonymous WGBH archivist, May 20n.

14. Fred Barzyk and David Atwood, interview with the author, 24 May 2011.

15. Ibid.

16. Paik, Nam June, “Electronic Opera #1,” The Medium Is the Medium (1969).

17. Barzyk, Fred, Fred Barzyk: The Search for a Personal Vision in Broadcast Television (Miwaukee:
Haggerty Museum of Art, 2001) 63-72.

18. Fred Barzyk and David Atwood, interview with the author, 24 May, 2011.

19. Barzyk, Fred, “Paik and the Video Synthesizer,” Fred Barzyk: The Search for a Personal Vision in
Broadcast Television (Milwaukee: Haggerty Museum of Art, 2001) 74.

20. Carter, Curtis, “Without Fear of Failure,” Fred Barzyk: The Search for a Personal Vision in Broadcast
Television (Milwaukee: Haggerty Museum of Art, 2001) 18.

21. Fifield, George, “WGBH,” Fred Barzyk: The Search for a Personal Vision in Broadcast Television
(Milwaukee: Haggerty Museum of Art, 2001) 64.

22. Benjamin, Walter, “The Work of Art in the Age of Technical Reproducibility,” Selected Writings,
Volume 3, I935-I938, ed. Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings (Cambridge: Belknap/Harvard
Univ Press, 2002) n2.

video synthesizer, colorism, and electronic art
The Emergence and Growth of Evolutionary Art - 1980-1993 Nicholas Lambert, William Latham, and Frederic Fol Leymarie SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

One of the most interesting-if frustrating-aspects of charting the history of computer art is trying to understand the intersections of specific technologies and artistic experimentation. It is rarely as clear-cut as a simple linear influence of one to the other, partly because artists are able to envision all kinds of possibilities that technology might enable them to realize in some kind of form, but as they do so, the technology is itself shaped, especially in terms of how it is perceived by others. Do artists find a way to give technologies an aesthetic outlet, or do some technologies possess-or facilitate-a characteristic aesthetic that finds its expression through specific artists? Certainly, in the history of computer art it would seem that particular aesthetics, technologies, and artists are closely intertwined in certain periods. This intertwining of art, technology, and ideas stolen from the natural world has never been so arguably merged as the period in the history of computer art from 1980 to 1993. We take as the defining start of this period the initial work of Mandelbrot on fractals that became known as the Mandelbrot set and led to his famous illustrated art-science book The Fractal Geometry of Nature. In 1993, this first highly creative period in evolutionary computer art came to an end with major publications by pioneers Karl Sims, Stephen Todd, and William Latham.

1. Mandelbrot, Benoit, “Fractal Aspects of the Iteration of z –o>Lz(L-z) for Complex L and z,”
Annals of the New York Academy ofScience, Vol. 357, 249-259 (1980).

2. Mandelbrot, Benoit, The Fractal Geometry ofNature (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1982).

3. Mandelbrot, Benoit, “Fractals and an Art for the Sake of Science,” Leonardo Supplemental
Issue, Vol. 2, Computer Art in Context: SIGGRAPH ’89 Art Show Catalog, 21-24 (1989).

4. Turing, Alan M., “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis,” Philosophical Transactions ofthe Royal
Society B, Vol. 237, No. 641, 37-72 (1952).

5. Gardner, Martin, “Mathematical Games: The Fantastic Combinations ofJohn Conway’s New Solitaire
Game ‘Life’,” Scientific American, Vol. 223, 120-123 (1970).

6. Dawkins, Richard, The Blind Watchmaker (New York: Norton & Co., 1986) 55.

7. Levy, Silvano, Desmond Morris: 50 Years ofSurrealism (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1997).

8. Dawkins, Richard, The Blind Watchmaker (New York: Norton & Co., 1986) 8.

9. Ibid., 329.

IO. Norton, Alan, “Generation and Display of Geometric Fractals in 3-D,” Computer Graphics, Vol.
16, No. 3 (1970).

11. Lansdown,John, “The Possible Worlds of William Latham,” The Conquest ofForm: Computer Art by
William Latham, Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, 3 December 1988-15January 1989.

12. Ibid.

13. Todd, Stephen, and William Latham, Evolutionary Art and Computers (London: Academic Press,
1992) 2.

14. Ibid.

15. Giger, H.R., Giger’s Alien (London: Big O Publishing, 1979).

16. Thompson, D’Arcy Wentworth, On Growth and Form (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press, 1917).

17. Greenfield, Gary R., “Simulated Aesthetics and Evolving Artworks: A Coevolutionary Approach,”
Leonardo, Vol. 35, No. 3, 283-289 (2002).

18. Whitelaw, Mitchell, “The Abstract Organism: Towards a Prehistory for A-Life Art,” Leonardo,
Vol. 34, No. 4, 345-348 (2001).

19. Ibid., 346.

20. Ibid., 347.

21. Todd, Stephen, and William Latham, Evolutionary Art and Computers (London: Academic Press,
1992) I2.

22. Whitelaw, Mitchell, “Tom Ray’s Hammer: Emergence and Excess in A-Life Art,” Leonardo, Vol. 31,
No. 5, 377-381 (1998).

23. McCorduck, Pamela, Meta-Art, Artificial Intelligence, and the Work ofHarold Cohen (New York:
W.H. Freeman, 1991).

24. Leyton, Michael, “A Process-Grammar for Shape,” Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 34, No. 2,
213-247 (1988).

25. Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, and Lindenmayer, Aristid, The Algorithmic Beauty ofPlants (New
York: Springer-Verlag, 1990).

26. Whitelaw, Mitchell, Metacreation: Art and Artificial Life (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004).

27. Latham, William, et al., “Using DNA to Generate 3D Organic Art Forms,” Evo’o8 Proceedings ofthe
2008 Conference on Applications ofEvolutionary Computing (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2008) 433-442.

28. Latham, William, et al., “From DNA to 3D Organic Art Forms,” Proceedings SIGGRAPH ’07 ACM
SIGGRAPH 2007 Sketches (New York: ACM, 2007), accessed at <www.siggraph.org/s20o7fattendees/

evolutionary art and art history
The Emperor's New Art? Delle Maxwell SIGGRAPH 1991: Art and Design Show Paper

Premature over-promotion of any and all “artwork” created with computers has caused art critics to feel as if they are being asked to admire the Emperor’s New Clothes. At the same time, computer artists accuse art critics of being uninformed, myopic, and hopelessly out of touch with the new media concerns.

Artists visiting computer art shows disdain the oft-exhibited science fiction grotesqueries masquerading as art: Bad critical reception is said to be because of this “nerd” aesthetic. On the other hand, technical-minded factions also wonder when computer artists will actually learn to program, or produce something besides canned paint system imagery and indecipherable bad video tapes. Such squabbling and shifting of the blame from one group to the next is not the way to correct the problem.

Adding to the problem is the fact that standards by which we have evaluated computer art have evolved outside of the “high art” community and tend to be too low. Often the concepts of science and tools of technology are merely appropriated and exhibited as art without true artistic transformation or social context. Furthermore, when work refers to contemporary art world trends, it often does so as a form of imitation or serves merely to reinforce what we already know about image making. Without true understanding of either art or science and technology, this work can hardly help being superficial.

We need to fairly evaluate work using standards as high as those by which the rest of the arts are judged. We need to extend beyond the isolation of our small community and address broader issues. Most importantly, we need to take advantage of the uniqueness of computing and push its properties to their limits. Only as these issues are addressed and resolved will computer art gain in significance and authenticity.

  1. Stanislaw Lem. “Science Fiction-A Hopeless Case: With Exceptions.” From Microworlds (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984) p. 47. The essay was originally published in 1973.
  2. Ibid., p. 67.
  3. Yet to be fair, it must be said that the same charge can be leveled at
    the art community at large. The point is made by Suzi Gablick that “Culture in postmodern society has been increasingly administered’…controlled by means of corporate management techniques, public relations, and professional marketing.” In Has Modernism Failed?
    (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1984) p. 13. (In this sense, we are NOT isolated from the rest of the arts community!)
  4. Dan Cameron, “The New York Problem.” In Flash Art. No. 152, (1990) p. 120. Referring to work of contemporary New York artists.
  5. Douglas Davis, Art and the Future. (New York: Praeger, 1973). Quoting an interview with the sculptor James Seawright.
  6. Subscription page in Mondo 2000. Volume 2, Summer 1990. p. 160.
  7. Pamela McCorduck. “Aaron’s Code: Meta-Art, Artificial Intelligence, and the Work of Harold Cohen.” (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1991). p. 5.
  8. Ibid., p. 7.
  9. Ibid., p. 9.
  10. Christopher G. Langton, editor. Artificial Life. (Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1987) p. xxiii.
  11. Teresa Carpenter. “Slouching Toward Cyberspace.” Village Voice. March 10. p. 38.
  12. Charles Newman, The Post-Modern Aura. (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1985) p. 177.
  13. Vivian Sobchack, “A Theory of Everything: Meditations on Total Chaos.” Artforum, October, 1990 pp. 148-155.
  14. Vivian Sobchack, “What in the World: Vivian Sobchack on New Age Mutant Ninja Hackers.” Artforum, April, 1991.
[View PDF]
The Engineering of Vision and the Aesthetics of Computer Art Lev Manovich SIGGRAPH 1994: Art and Design Show Paper

The rise of modern image indus­tries, such as computer graphics, human factors research, or com­puter vision, can be seen as a part of the shift to the post-industrial society of perceptual labor. In contemporary society, human vision has become the key instru­ment of labor: the channel of communication between human and machine. If the industry aims to make human vision as produc­tive and as efficient as possible, the computer artist, in contrast, can be defined as a designer of bad interfaces: interfaces that are inefficient, wasteful, confusing.

[View PDF]
The Ghost in the Dandelion Scottie Chih-Chieh Huang SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

Dandelion is a virtual creature used data visualization, generative design, and facial recognitiontechniques to build the dynamical patterns of the virtual life to interact with people’s emotional and physiological expression in a soothing way. The core algorithm of Dandelion graphic is inspired from the genetic code, to make dandelion patterns do self-generation, transform morphology like natural evolution. The embedded series parameters are set from the viewer’s specific facial features when stand in front of it, grasp viewer’s emotional and physiological express as the performance of dandelion’s growing behavior. It would demonstrates a novel symbiosis of data visualization that embedded into a mirror brings functional aesthetics, healthcare thinking into our future living.

The Image in Art and 'Computer Art' Richard Wright SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

In this essay the author takes a cursory look at the increasing range of applications of computers to art and design practice and questions some of the assumptions that have been made about their use. The proliferation of computer imagery in society as part of the video culture and its effects on our attitudes towards digital representation are emphasised. This leads to a redefinition of the intimacy of the relationship between artist and art object. Such issues contribute to the comparative study of digital media and physical/mechanical media and the computer’s impact on the creation and apprehension of imagery.

[View PDF]
The Immediacy of the Artist's Mark in Shape Computation Jacquelyn A. Martino SIGGRAPH 2010: TouchPoint: Haptic Exchange Between Digits Paper

This paper contributes to the area of computation in the production of artistic form. The author-artist describes a computational system in the form of a curvilinear, parametric shape grammar. Based on an analysis of over 3,000 entries in her traditionally hand-drawn sketchbooks, she describes the grammar that synthesizes drawings in the design language of her evolving style and serves as a tool for selfunderstanding of her artistic process.

1. P. McCorduck, Aaron’s Code: Meta-Art, Artificial Intelligence, and the Work of Harold Cohen (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1991) xvi, 225.

2. R. Verostko, “Epigenetic Painting: Software as Genotype,” Leonardo, Vol. 23, No. 1, 17-23 (1990).

3. G. Stiny, Shape (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006) 432.

4. M. Ozkar and G. Stiny, “Shape Grammars,” ACM SIGGRAPH 2009 Courses (2009).

5. G. Stiny and J. Gips, “Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture,” republished in The Best Computer Papers of I9JI, 0. R. Petrocelli, ed. (Philadelphia: Auerbach, 1972) 125-135.

6. G. Stiny and W. Mitchell, “The Palladian Grammar,” Environment and Planning B, Vol. 5, No. 1, 5-18 (1978).

7. M. Lipp, P. Wonka, and M. Wimmer, “Interactive Visual Editing of Grammars for Procedural Architecture,” ACM SIGGRAPH 2008 (2008).

8. R.G. Lauzzana and L. Pocock-Williams, ”A Rule System for Aesthetic Research in the Visual Arts,” Leonardo, Vol. 21, No. 4, 445-452 (1988).

9. J. Kirsch and R. Kirsch, “The Anatomy of Painting Style: Description with Computer Rules,” Leonardo, Vol. 21, No. 4, 437-444 (1988).

I1. T.W. Knight, Transformations in Design: A Formal Approach to Stylistic Change and Innovation in the Visual Arts (Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994) xvii, 258. n. J.A. Martino, The Immediacy of the Artist’s Mark in Shape Computation: From Visualization to Representation, Doctoral Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, hdl.handle.net/1721.1/37265 (2006).

12. T.W Knight, “Color Grammars: Designing with Lines and Colors,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 16, 417-449 (1989).

The Interactive Image: A Media Archaeology Approach Esteban Garcia Bravo, Andrés Burbano, Vetria L. Byrd, and Angus Graeme Forbes SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America Paper

This paper examines the history of the influential Interactive Image computer graphics showcase, which took place at museum and conference venues from 1987 to 1988. The authors present a preliminary exploration of the historical contexts that led to the creation of this exhibition by the Electronic Visualization Lab (EVL), which included the integrated efforts of both artists and computer scientists. In addition to providing historical details about this event, the authors introduce a media archaeology approach for examining the cultural and technological contexts in which this event is situated.

1. Electronic Visualization Lab, The Interactive Image [Photocopy], Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, EVL archives, UIC, IL (1987).

2. E. Shanken, “Artists in Industry and the Academy: Collaborative Research, Interdisciplinary Scholarship and the Creation and Interpretation of Hybrid Forms,” Leonardo 38, No. 5, 415–418 (2005).

3. C. Paul, Digital Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2003).

4. F. Rose, “The Big Bang of Art and Tech in New York,” New York Times, 2015, <http://www.nytimes. com/2015/11/08/arts/design/the-big-bang-of-art-and-tech-in-new-york.html>.

5. Paul [3].

6. M. Brown, personal correspondence, 2 April 2017.

7. E. Huhtamo and J. Parikka, eds., Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 2011).

8. E. Huhtamo, Illusions in Motion, Leonardo Book Series (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013).

9. S. Zielinski, Deep Time of the Media: Toward an Archaeology of Hearing and Seeing by Technical Means (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2006).

10. Z. Patterson, Peripheral Vision (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2015).

11. M. Rosen, A Little-Known Story about a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer’s Arrival in Art (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2011).

12. R. Schrock, “After the Storm,” Archival Outlook of the Society of American Archivists, May/June 2013, pp. 6–7.

13. EVLtube, <https://www.youtube.com/user/evltube>, accessed in January 2017.

14. T. Sito, Moving Innovation: A History of Computer Animation (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013).

15. S. Cubitt, “Angelical Ecologies,” Millennium Film Journal 1, No. 58 (2013).

16. Brown [6].

17. “The Interactive Image” facsimile [Photocopy], Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, EVL archives, UIC, IL (1987).

18. T.A. DeFanti, “Simulacra/Stimulacra:: Fractal,” Cibermedia: Art Futura 91 (Ajuntament de Barcelona: Barcelona, 1991).

19. P. Tree, Newsrelease: The University of Illinois at Chicago Office of Public Affairs [Manuscript], EVL archives, UIC, IL (19 November 1986).

20. At Chicago, Computer images new method of presenting scientific data [News clipping photocopy], EVL archives, UIC, IL (27 April 1988).

21. Sito [14].

22. S. Bryson, “Virtual Reality in Scientific Visualization,” Communications of the ACM 39, No. 5, 62–71 (May 1996).

23. B.H. McCormick, T.A. DeFanti, and M.D. Brown, eds., “Visualization in Scientific Computing,” [Special issue] Computer Graphics 21, No. 6 (1987).

24. J. Schewe, “Ten years of Photoshop,” PEI magazine (2000).

25. DeFanti [18].

26. “The Interactive Image” facsimile [Photocopy], Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, EVL archives, UIC, IL (1987).

27. A.G. Forbes, “Articulating Media Arts Activities in Art-Science Contexts,” Leonardo 48, No. 4, 330–337 (2015).

The Kitchen as a Graphical User Interface Leonardo Bonanni and Chia-Hsiang Lee SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Essay

Everyday objects can become computer interfaces by the overlay of digital information. This paper describes scenarios and implementa­ tions in which imagery is digitally painted on the objects and spaces of a kitchen. Five augmented physical interfaces were designed to orient and inform people in the tasks of cleaning, cooking, and accessing information: Information Table, Information Annotation ofKitchen, HeatSink, Spatial Definition, and Social Floor. Together, these interfaces augment the entire room into a single graphical user interface.

Bretzner, L., Laptev I., & Lindeberg,T. (2002). Hand gesture recogni­ tion using multi-scale colour features, hierarchical models and particle filtering. In Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.

Cruz-Neira C., Sandin, D., & DeFanti, T. (1993). Vi ual reality: The design and implementation of the CAVE. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 93, 135-142.
Haykin, S. (1998). Neural networks: A comprehensive foundation, 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall.

Hillerer T., Feiner S., & Pavlik, J. (1999). Situated documentaries:

Embedding multimedia presentations in the real world. In Proceedings of ISWC’99, 79-86.
Ju, W. (2001). The design of active workspaces. Master’s thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pinhanez, C. (2001). Augmenting reality with projected interactive dis­ plays. In Proceedings of International Symposium on Virtual and Augmented Architecture (VAA’01).
Selker T. & Burleson, W. (2000). Social floor. Proceedings of OZCHI,

Inte ace Reality in the New Millennium.

Selker, T. & Burleson, W. (2000). Context-aware design and interac­ tion in computer systems. IBM Systems Journal, 39(3&4).

[View PDF] spatial definition, physical interface, virtual space, human-computer interaction, gesture recognition, and neural network
The Life and Death of Energy-Autonomous Objects Anab Jain and Alex S. Taylor SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
The Mapping of Space Lev Manovich SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Perspective, Radar, and 3D Computer Graphics Essay

1991 saw two events, of different importance and seemingly unrelated. One was the longawaited publication in English of what can probably be called the single most influential essay of modern art history—Erwin Panofsky’s Die Perspektive als ‘Symbolische Form.’¹ The interest generated around the re-emergence of this legendary essay, written in 1924-1925, demonstrates that the problem of perspectival representation is still felt to be relevant to contemporary culture. The second event was the Gulf War, the outcome of which was largely predetermined by Western superiority in the techniques of perspectival representation.

[View PDF]
The Next Generation Poetic Experience Diana Arellano and Volker Helzle SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

This paper presents the motivation, background and implementation of The Muses of Poetry, an interactive installation that combines dynamically generated character animation, semantic analysis, natural voice interaction and affect in poetry. Inspired by the subjectivity and ethereal quality of this literary art, we wanted to enhance the act of reciting poetry by providing a set of characters the possibility to “understand” and manifest the emotional content of the poems through facial expressions and affective speech. We believe that this original installation will bring poetry closer to a wider audience, while creating a playful, interactive and surprising experience for the user.

BEE, N., ANDR´ E, E., AND TOBER, S. 2009. Breaking the ice in human-agent communication: Eye-gaze based initiation of contact with an embodied conversational agent. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA ’09, 229–242.

BLACK, A., BUNNELL, H., DOU, Y., KUMAR MUTHUKUMAR, P., METZE, F., PERRY, D., POLZEHL, T., PRAHALLAD, K., STEIDL, S., AND VAUGHN, C. 2012. Articulatory features for expressive speech synthesis. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, 4005–4008.

COLTON, S., GOODWIN, J., AND VEALE, T. 2012. Full face poetry generation. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Creativity, 95–102.

COPE, D. H. 2011. Comes the Fiery Night. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

COURGEON, M., BUISINE, S., AND MARTIN, J.-C. 2009. Impact of expressive wrinkles on perception of a virtual character’s facial expressions of emotions. In Proceedings of the 9th InternationalConferenceonIntelligentVirtualAgents,Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, IVA ’09, 201–214.

COWIE, R., DOUGLAS-COWIE, E., TSAPATSOULIS, N., VOTSIS, G., KOLLIAS, S., FELLENZ, W., AND TAYLOR, J. 2001. Emotion recognition in human computer interaction. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 32–80.

DUHAMEL, P., AND WHISSELL, C.,1998. Thedictionaryofaffect in language [computer software]. FISHER, C. 2009. Andromeda. Electronic Literature Collection, Volume Two.

GERVAS, P., HERV’AS, R., AND ROBINSON, J. R. 2007. Difficulties and challenges in automatic poem generation: Five years of research at ucm.

GREENE, E., BODRUMLU, T., AND KNIGHT, K. 2010. Automatic analysis of rhythmic poetry with applications to generation and translation. In Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Association for ComputationalLinguistics,Stroudsburg,PA,USA,EMNLP’10, 524–533.

HELZLE, V., SPIELMANN, S., AND ZWEILING, N. 2011. Emote, a new way of creating animated messages for web enabled devices. In Proceedings of CVMP 2011.

KASAP, Z., MOUSSA, M. B., CHAUDHURI, P., AND MAGNENATTHALMANN, N. 2009. Making them remember – emotional virtual characters with memory. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 29, 2, 20–29.

KWIATEK, K., AND WOOLNER, M. 2010. Let me understand the poetry. embedding interactive storytelling within panoramic virtual environments. In EVA 2010, 199–205.

NIELSEN, F. A. 2011. A new anew: evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs. In Proceedings of the ESWC2011 Workshop on ’Making Sense of Microposts’: Big things come in small packages, M. Rowe, M. Stankovic, A.-S. Dadzie, and M. Hardey, Eds., vol. 718 of CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 93–98.

NIEWIADOMSKI, R., BEVACQUA, E., MANCINI, M., AND PELACHAUD, C. 2009. Greta: an interactive expressive eca system. In Proceedings of The 8th International Conference on AutonomousAgentsandMultiagentSystems-Volume2,International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Richland, SC, AAMAS ’09, 1399–1400.

PFEIFFER, T., LIGUDA, C., WACHSMUTH, I., AND STEIN, S. 2011. Living with a virtual agent: Seven years with an embodied conversational agent at the heinz nixdorf museumsforum. In Proceedings of the Re-Thinking Technology in Museums 2011 Emerging Experiences, thinkkcreative&theUniversityofLimerick, S. Barbieri, K. Scott, and L. Ciolfi, Eds., 121–131.

RAUH, R., AND SCHALLER, U. M. 2009. Categorical perception of emotional facial expressions in video clips with natural and artificial actors: A pilot study. Tech. rep., Freiburg: Abt. fr Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie im Kindes- und Jugendalter.

REITHINGER, N., GEBHARD, P., L¨OCKELT, M., NDIAYE, A., PFLEGER, N., AND KLESEN, M. 2006. Virtualhuman: dialogic and affective interaction with virtual characters. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, ACM, New York, NY, USA, ICMI ’06, 51–58.

SCHRODER, M. 2009. Expressive speech synthesis: Past, present, andpossiblefutures. AffectiveInformationProcessing,111–126.

SIMANOWSKI, R. 2011. Digital Art and Meaning: Reading Kinetic Poetry, Text Machines, Mapping Art, and Interactive Installations. University of Minnesota Press.

SMALL DESIGN FIRM INC, 2004. L’or´eal poetry harp. Presented in Cambridge, USA.

STERN, A. 2003. Creating Emotional Relationships with Virtual Characters. Ed. R. Trappl, P. Petta, and S. Payr, MIT PressMIT Press.

STRAPPARAVA, C., AND VALITUTTI, A. 2004. Wordnet-affect: an affective extension of wordnet. In 4th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2004), 1083–1086.

TOSA, N., AND NAKATSU, R. 1998. Interactive poem system. In Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, Annual Conference Series, 115– 118.

UTTERBACK, C., AND ACHITUV, R., 1999. Text rain. Permanent exhibition at the 21c Museum Hotel, Louisville, USA.

The Noetic Connection: Synesthesia, Psychedelics, and Language Diana Slattery SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Essay

The literatures that touch on synaesthesias – scientific, art-historical, literary, phenomenological, ethnographic, psychedelic – vary widely in their definitions, their interpretations, and their degree of comfo with the first-person, subjective nature of experiential reports. The signi cances given to synesthetic experiences are similarly wide­ ranging. This paper explores the relationships among synaesthesias, psychedelic experience, and language, highlighting Terence McKenna’s synesthetic language experiences on DMT and magic mushrooms. We describe the complexities of creating and pe orm­ ing with the Synestheater, a system that provides the means to weave together, in multiple mappings, two or more complex visual, aural, and linguistic systems in live pe ormance.

Abram, D. (1997). The spell of the sensuous. New York: Vintage Books.
Arguelles, J.A. (1975). The transformative vision: Re ections on the nature and history of human expression. Berkeley and London: Shambala.

C owic, R.E. (1995). Synaesthesia: Phenomenology and neuropsy­ chology, a review of current knowledge. Psyche, An Interdisciplina Jou al of Research on Consciousness, 2(10).
Dobkin de Rios, M. & Janiger, 0. (2003). LSD: Spirituality and the creative process. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press.

Doyle, R. (2003). LSDNA. In P. Thurtle & R. Mitchell (Eds.). Semiotic Flesh: Information and the Human Body. Seattle.
Fischer, R. (1971). A cartography of the ecstatic and meditative states.Science, 174(4012).

Harrison, J. (2001). Synaesthesia: The strangest thing. Oxford: O ord University Press.
�uver, H. (1966). Mescal and the mechanism of ha ucinations. Chicago: University of Luna, E. & Amaringo, P.C. (1999). Ayauasca visions: The iconography of a Peruvian shaman. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.

Marks, L.E. (2000 ). Synaesthesia. In E. Cardena, S. Lynn & S. Krippner (Eds.). Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McKenna, (1991). The archaic revival. San Francisco: Harper. Munn, H. (1973). The mushrooms of language. In M. Harner (Ed.). Hallucinogens and Shamanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Narby, J. (1998). The cosmic serpent: DNA and the origins of owledge. New York: Putnam.

Pahnke, W.N.(1971). The psychedelic mystical experience in the human encounter with death. Psychedelic Revie 11.
Porush, D. Telepathy: Alphabetic consciousness, VR, and post­ modern presence. University of Warwick Conference on Virtual Futures.

Ternaux, J-P. (2003). Synaesthesia: A multimodal combination of nses.Leonardo, 36(4).
Vaults of Erowid. www.erowid.org

[View PDF]
The Pixel/The Line: Approaches to Interactive Text Noah Wardrip-Fruin SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Panel / Roundtable

The Web is a major topic at SIGGRAPH 2001, as it has been for several years. But there has not yet been a substantial discussion at a SIGGRAPH conference of the Web’s primary and foundational media: text. This panel brings together five experts who span a range of approaches to responsive text through computer graphics and interactive techniques. The presentations are both theoretical and applied, demonstrating techniques ranging from direct manipulation through artificial intelligence, and drawing on the insights of various fields, from visual art through literature.

[View PDF] artificial intelligence, computer graphics, and interactive
The Pleasures of Immersion and Engagement: Schemas, Scripts, and the Fifth Business J. Yellowlees Douglas and Andrew Hargadon SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

Presently, designers of interactive narratives and video games have only a slender understanding of the aesthetic experiences their audiences and users seek. Using schema theory, this study articulates the two varieties of aesthetic pleasures that users of interactive works enjoy: immersion and engagement. It uses schema theory to define the characteristics of immersion and engagement in both conventional and new media. After examining how readers’ experiences of these two different aesthetics may be enhanced or diminished by interface design, options for navigation, and other features, the essay concludes by looking beyond immersion and engagement to “flow,” a state in which readers are both immersed and engaged.

It must be granted that there is some value in mystification, labyrinth, or surprise in the environment… This is so, however, only under two conditions. First, there must be no danger of losing basic form or orientation, of never coming out. The surprise must occur in an overall framework; the confusions must be small regions in a visible whole. Furthermore, the labyrinth or mystery must in itself have some form that can be explored and in time apprehended. Complete chaos without hint of connection is never pleasurable. – Kevin Lynch, The Image of the City⁵⁷

Those roles which, being neither those of Hero nor Heroine, Confidante nor Villain, but which were nonetheless essential to bring about the recognition or the denouement, were called the Fifth Business in drama and opera companies organized according to the old style; the player who acted these parts was often referred to as Fifth Business. – Robertson Davies, The Fifth Business: The Deptford Trilogy²²

1. Aarseth, E. (1997). Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

2. Basalla, G. (1988). The evolution of technology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

3. Beaugrande, R. (1980). Text, discourse, and process: Toward a multidiscip!i11ary science of texts. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1980.

4. Beaugrande, R. & Colby, B. (1979), Narrative models of action and interaction, Cognitive Science 3 (1979), 43-66.

5. Bernstein, M. (1991). The navigation problem reconsidered. In Hypertext/hypermedia handbook. Eds. Emily Berk and Joseph Devlin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991, 285-298.

6. Bernstein, M., Joyce, M., & Levine, D. (1992). Contours of Constructive Hypertext, European Conference on Hypermedia Technology, 1992. Milano: Association for Computing Machinery, 1992, 161-170.

7. Bernstein, M. Span of attention. HypertextNow. Watertown,MA: EastgateSystems.: www.eastgate.com/HypertextNow//archives/Baseball.html

8. Bernstein, M. Patterm, narrative, and baseball. HypertextNow. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems: www.eastgate.com/HypertextNow//archives/ Attention.html.

9. Bernstein, M. Chasing Our Tails. Composition@Chorus: wwwwriting.berkeley. ed u/chorus/com position/be rnstein/structu re. h tm I>.

10. Birkerts, S. (1994). The Gutenberg elegies: The fate of reading in an electronic age. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1994.

11. Bolter, J. & Grusin, R. Remediation: Understanding new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.

12. Brand, S. (1987). The Media lab: Inventing the future at MIT New York: Viking, 1987.

13. Britton, B.K., (1978), Reading and cognitive capacity u.wge: Adjunct question effects. Memory and Cognition, 6, 266-273.

14. Brown-Martin, G. (1999). Hooray for Hollywood. NextGe11 2 (2), 94-101.

15. Bruner,). (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

16. Coleridge, S. T. Biographia literaria. In Critical theory since plato. Ed. Hazard Adams. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1971, 468-473.

17. Coover, R. (1992). The end of books. New York Times Book Review (June 21, 1992): I, 23-24.

18. Coover, R., ed. Hypertext Hotel: duke.cs.brown.edu:8888/

19. Coover, R. (1969). Prickso11gs and descants. New York: Plume, 1969.

20. Cowie, P. (1990). Coppola. London: Faber and Faber, 1990.

21. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper, 1990.

22. Davies, R. (1983). Fifth business: The deptford trilogy. New York: Penguin, 1983.

23. Douglas. J. Y. (1999). The end of books- or books without end? Reading interactive narratives. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, I 999.

24. Douglas, J. Y. (1994). I have said nothing. Eastgate Quarterly Review 1,(2).

25. Douglas, J. Y. (1991). Understanding the act of reading: The WOE beginners guide to dissection. Writing on the edge 2, (2), 112-126.

26. Douglas, J. Y. (1998). Wandering through the labyrinth: Encountering interactive fiction. Computerf and composition 6, (3), 93-103.

27. Edward, D. M. & Hardman, L. (1990). Lost in hyperspace: Cognitive mapping and navigation in a hypertext environment,. In Hypertext: The01y into practice, ed. Ray McAleese. Oxford: Intellect Books, 1990, I 05-125.

28. Eliot, T.S. (1964). The wasteland. Selected poems. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1964.

29. Ford, F. M. (1990). The good soldier: A tale of passion. 1915. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

30. Frank, J. (1988). Spatial form in modern literature. ln Essemials of the theory offi ction, Eds. Michael Hoffman and Patrick Murphy. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988, 85-100

31. Gianetti, L. (1990). Understanding movies. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.

32. Gilligan, S. (1993). Who killed Sam Rupert? Virtual murder 1. Portland, OR: Creative Multimedia Corporation, 1993.

33. Gilligan, S. (1993). The magic death. Virtual murder 2. Portland, OR: Creative Multimedia Corporation, 1993.

34. Gilligan, S. (1995). Who killed Brett Penance? The environmental su1fe1; murder mystery 3. Portland, OR: Creative Multimedia Corporation, 1995.

35. Gilligan, S. (1995). Who killed Taylor French? The case of the undressed reporte1; murder myste,y 4. Portland, OR: Creative Multimedia Corporation, 1995.

36. Gombrich, E.H (1956). Art and illusion: A study in the psychology of pictorial representation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.

37. “Grim Fandango,” Fremont, CA: LucasArts Entertainment, 1998.

38. Groden, M. (1977). Ulysses in progress. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

39. Harpold, T. (1991). T hrenody: Psychoanalytic digressions on the subject of hypertexts. In Hypermedia and literary criticism. Eds. Paul Delany and George Landow. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

40. Hargadon, A. and Douglas, J.Y. When innovations meet institutions: Edison and the design of the electric light. Unpublished manuscript.

41. Hurtig, B. (1998). The plot thickens. New Media. January 13, 1998.

42. Iser, W. (1978). The act of reading: A theo,y of response. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

43. Jackson, S. (1996). Patchwork girl: by Mary/Shelley/and herself Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1996.

44. Joyce, J. Anna Livia Plurabelle: The making of a chapter. Ed. Fred H. Higginson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1960.

45. Joyce, J. Ulysses. New York: V intage, 1980.

46. Joyce, M. Afternoon: A ,·to,y. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1990.

47. Joyce, M. (1997). Nonce upon some times: Rereading hypertext fiction, Modern Fiction Studies 43, (3), 579-597.

48. Joyce, M. (1995). OJ two minds: Hypertext pedagogy and poetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995.

49. Joyce, M. (1998). Siren shapes: Exploratory and constructive hypertexts, Academic Computing 3, (4) (November 1988), 37-42.

50. Joyce, M. Twelve blue: www.eastgate.com/Twelve8lue/

51. Landow, G. P. (1992). The Dickens Web. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1992.

52. Landow, G. P. (1997). Hypertext 2.0: The convergence of contempora,y critical theo,y and technology. 2nd edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997,

53. Langer, S. (1953). Feeling and f01m. New York: Scribner, 1953.

54. Larsen, D. (1994). Marble springs. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1994.

55. Laurel, B. (1991). Computers as theatre. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1991.

56. Longest journey. New York, Funcom, 2000.

57. Lynch, K. (196). The image of the city. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1960.

58. Lyne, A., director. “Jacob’s Ladder,” New Line Cinema, 1990.

59. Marshall, C. C. & Shipman, F. M .. Searching for the missing link: Discovering implicit structure in spatial hypertext. Hypertext 93: www.csdl.camu.edu/-shipman/ ht93-paperlht93-paper.htm1

60. McDaid, J. (1992). Uncle Buddy’s phantom funhouse. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1992.

61. McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding media: The extensions of man. New York: Signet, 1964.

62. Mechner, J. (1997). The Last Erpress. Novato, CA: Broderbund, 1997.

63. Miller, L. www.claptrap.com, New York Times Book Review, August 29, 1998: 43. Electronic Art and Animation Catalog

64. Miller, R. and Miller, R. (1993). “Myst.” Novato, CA: Broderbund, 1993.

65. Moulthrop, S. (1989). Hypertext and “the hyperreal.” Hypertext 89 Proceedings, Baltimore, 1989, 259-267.

66. Moulthrop, S. (1991). Toward a paradigm for reading hypertexts: Making notl1- ing happen in hypermedia fiction. In Hypertextlhype,media handbook, Eds. Emily Berk and Joseph Devlin. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991, 65-78.

67. Moulthrop, S. (1991). Victory garden. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1991.

68. Moulthrop, S. (1997). Where to? A review of forward anywhere by Cathy Marshall and Judy Malloy, Convergence: The journal of research into new media technologies, 1997, [pp.]

69. Murray, J. (1997). Hamlet on the holodeck: The future of nan-ative in cyberspace. New York: The Free Press, 1997.

70. Nell, V. ( 1988). Lost in a book: The psychology of reading for pleasure. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

71. Paul, C. (1995). Unreal city: A reader’s companion to The Wasteland. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1995.

72. Rapoport, A. & Chammah, A. M. (1965). Prisoner’s dilemma. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.

73. Robbe-Grillet, A. (1959). In the labyrinth. Trans. Christine Brooke-Rose. London: John Calder, 1959.

74. Rosenberg, J. (1996). The structure of hypertext activity. Proceedings of Hypertext 96: www.cs.unc.edu/-barman/HT96/P l 7/SHA_out.html

75. Schank, R. C. (1982). Dynamic memo,y: A theo,y of reminding and learning in computers and people. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

76. Schank, R. C. (1990). Tell me a story: A new look at real and artificial memory. New York: Scribners, 1990.

77. Schank, R. C. & Abelson, R. P. (1977). Scnj,ts, plans, goals and understanding: An inqui,y into human knowledge structures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.

78. “Shenmue.” Tokyo: Sega Dreamcast, 2001.

79. Shono, H. (1994). Gadget: invention, travel, and adventure. Synergy, 1994.

80. Sierra Studios Online Survey. August 25, 1999: www.sierrastudios.com/contentsurvey. html.

81. States, 8. 0. (1993). Dreaming and st01ytelling. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

82. Strickland, S. (1997). True north. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, 1997.

83. “Sydney 2000.” London: Eidos, 2000.

84. “Titanic: Adventure out of Time.” Knoxville: CyberAix, 1996.

85. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self Computers and the human spirit. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984.

86. van Dijk, T. (1980). Macrostructures: An interdisciplina,y study of global structures in discourse, interaction, and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1980.

87. Wolff, A., (1996). Obsidian. Segasoft, 1996.

88. Woolf, V. (1925). Mrs. Dalloway. 1925. London: Grafton Books, 1976.

[View PDF] schema and video games
The Proceduralist Manifesto Judson Rosebush SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

‘Computer art’ has become a meaningless term, because soon virtually all art will be computerized in some way or another. The author introduces the concept of proceduralism as a label to represent a special class of art, one that constructs images using abstract qualitative and quantitative parameters, rather than simulates classical drawing and painting. This approach to making art ditters radically from drawing and painting approaches because the picture-making process is detached from the picture. The net result is that an entirely new area of creativity has been unveiled for the artist. As such, proceduralism is a logical successor to conceptual/process art; it is a major art movement and a new medium.

[View PDF]
The Readers Project: Procedural Agents and Literary Vectors Daniel Howe and John Cayley SIGGRAPH 2011: Tracing Home in The Age of Networked Techniques Paper

The Readers Project is an aesthetically oriented system of software entities designed to explore the culture of human reading. These entities, or “readers,” navigate texts according to specific reading strategies based upon linguistic feature analysis and real-time probability models harvested from search engines. As such, they function as autonomous text generators, writing machines that become visible within and beyond the typographic dimension of the texts on which they operate. Thus far the authors have deployed the system in a number of interactive art installations at which audience members can view the aggregate behavior of the readers on a large screen display and also subscribe, via mobile device, to individual reader outputs. As the structures on which these readers operate are culturally and aesthetically implicated, they shed critical light on a range of institutional practices – particularly those of reading and writing – and explore what it means to engage with the literary in digital media.

1. This paper is largely concerned with the details of our project’s analytical and computational methods. However these are pursued as integral to a practice of digital literary art, fully within the context of long-standing discussions concerning the interrelation of digital media and “the literary.” There is an extensive critical literature on this subject, recently summarized and extended, although from a relatively theoretical perspective, in N. Katherine Hayles, Electronic Literature: New Horizons for the Literary (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2008).

2. M. Gardner, “The Fantastic Combinations of John Conway’s New Solitaire Game of ‘Life’,” Scientific American, 223, 120–123 (1970).

3. In fact, this is historically/culturally determined, a function of the fact that the z-dimension happens to have had little or no significance for the graphic representation of language, or at best only marginal significance, for reasons associated with the media support for graphic language that have been available to date. This situation could change and, arguably, is now changing as it becomes ever easier to make the z-dimension perceptible within devices that represent graphic language. Note also that in sign language the z-dimension is significant, “phonologically” in the technical linguistic sense, and in other grammatical ways as well.

4. This phrase is intended to invoke both the natural language processing research that underlies our project and also the concept of “expressive processing” as vital aspects of much contemporary aesthetic practice, including literary practice, as elaborated by Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Expressive Processing: Digital Fictions, Computer Games, and Software Studies (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009).

5. See D. Ashlock and J. Tsang, “Evolved Art Via Control of Cellular Automata,” Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Congress on Evolutionary Computation (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2009) 3338–3344; D. Burraston and E. Edmonds, Cellular Automata in Generative Electronic Music and Sonic Art: Historical and Technical Review (Sydney: Creativity and Cognition Studios, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Technology, 2005); Kenneth E. Perry, “Abstract Mathematical Art,” Byte, December 1986, 181–190 (1986); and Mitchell Whitelaw, Metacreation: Art and Artificial Life (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004).

6. One might also pre-process texts so as to be able to extract other cellular properties that are not regularly represented in traditional orthography, such as phonemes, morphemes, syllables, etc. As will be clear from our description, while the identity of cells is based on traditional orthographic and typographic distinctions, the strategies and behaviors of particular readers are often based on features extracted by computational analysis of the supply texts. Rhyme, which is based on phonemic analysis, represents one of many such examples.

7. Although we would appreciate connecting our aesthetic research more rigorously with, for example, studies of reading in cognitive science, such relations are only loosely suggested here. The authors are nonetheless involved with UK ARHC-funded research network Poetry Beyond Text, based at the Universities of Dundee and Kent, in which both cognitive scientists concerned with reading and even cognitive aestheticians have a role. See: projects.beyondtext.ac.uk/poetrybeyondtext/.

8. We use “vector” in a figurative sense, related to its definition as: a quantity (e.g., of directed force or attention) that can be resolved into components. “Vector” also provides us with a noun that can refer to what is really, in this case, a potential direction for the choice of a next word to be read.

9. The term “poetics” is used here to encompass any property or method of language that may be composed for rhetorical or aesthetic effect.

10. We are aware that there is much sophisticated discussion of the interrelation between typography and semantics, typography and literary aesthetics, and so on. Johanna Drucker’s work is exemplary in this regard. Nonetheless, we believe that the distinction proposed here is both novel and critically generative. J. Drucker, The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art, 1909–1923 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). 324

11. For precise details of the current definition, please see: thereadersproject.org?p=contents/neighborhood. html. In our scheme – as a reflection of traditional left-to-right reading in the West – the NE and SE neighbors will not be null where there are lines of type above or below the current word. The NW, N, SW, and S positions may, however, be null, depending on relative word-lengths.

12. E. F. Moore, “Machine Models of Self-Reproduction,” Proceedings of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, The American Mathematical Society, Volume 14, 17–33 (1962).

13. A. A. Markov, “Classical Text in Translation: An Example of Statistical Investigation of the Text Eugene Onegin Concerning the Connection of Samples in Chains,” trans. David Link, Science in Context, 19.4, 591–600 (2006). Online: journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFullt xt?fulltextid=637500.

14. See thereadersproject.org/?p=contents/readers.html. We might also count as implemented a subtle variation of a simple reader, the “writing to be found” reader that was deployed in the Read for us installation, described here: thereadersproject.org/?p=installations/readforus/readforus.html.

15. Note that the preprocessed identification of perigrams for a text is carried out chiefly for reasons of efficiency. Often, depending on network constraints, the frequencies of particular phrases are cached in advance rather than being searched in real- time. The extraction of perigrams means that considerably fewer word combinations need be considered and processed.

16. The Readers Project is written, chiefly, in Processing (processing.org) and Java, and makes use of the RiTa natural language processing library (www.rednoise.org/rita/) developed by Daniel C. Howe. See D. C. Howe, “RiTa: Creativity Support for Computational Literature,” C&C ’09: Proceeding of the 7th ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Berkeley, October 26–30, 2009 (New York: ACM, 2009) 205–210, retrieved from doi.acm.org/10.1145/1640233. This library also provides objects designed to mine natural language data, in real time, from indexed repositories – those built by certain of the main internet search engines – that represent the most extensive corpus of natural language that has ever been available to language art practitioners. The phrases searched are enclosed in double quotes, providing a rough relative frequency for exact word sequences. There are problems with the way that search engines handle punctuation – whether or not punctuation is considered to break a sequence. (Google, for example, treats punctuation differently in different search portals: all of Google vs. Books.) These problems have been bracketed for the time being.

17. We are also able to constrain our searches to, for example, the indices of Google “books,” thus disregarding much of the commercially or technically implicated Internet text.

18. We believe that the existence of “services” (or pretended cultural vectors) such as those provided by Google, combined with a burgeoning, aesthetically motivated “use” of these services, has profound implications for contemporary artistic practice. Such use also allows artists to engage critically and productively with important socio-economic and political developments in an unprecedented manner. We are unable to address these crucial issues within the scope of this paper, but plan to do so in future contributions.

19. For us, one of the attractions of this approach and these procedures is that they may visualize and perform the workings of protosemantic and sublexical linguistic properties – both traditional poetic properties like rhyme and less-frequently acknowledged properties such as mesostic relations highlighting their contribution to literary aesthetics. The role of the protosemantic in The Readers Project must wait for fuller treatment in the future. See: S. McCaffery, Prior to Meaning: The Protosemantic and Poetics (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2001).

interactive art and human reading
The SF of Technoscience: The Politics of Simulation & A Challenge for New Media Art Eugene Thacker SIGGRAPH 2000: Art Gallery Paper

“In fact, science fiction … is no longer anywhere, and it is everywhere, in the circulation of models, here and now, in the very principle of the surrounding simulation.”

“Biology is becoming an information science … and it will take increasingly powerful computers and software to gather, store, analyze, model and distribute that information.”
Chairman, Compaq Computer Corporation

“The best way to predict the future is to invent it.”

One of the significant characteristics of the last decade, and the new millennium, is the way in which advancements in biotechnology and medicine have come to the attention of the public, through the media, as one of the primary areas in which the future is being vigorously imagined. What distinguishes biotechnology from other sciences is the way in which it is increasingly fusing genetic code with computer code, encapsulated in what Incyte Pharmaceuticals calls “point-and-click biology.”

1. Baudrillard J. (1983). Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).

2. O’Brien, S. (2000, January 20). Biotech industry gets Clinton’s endorsement. CBS Marketwatch (cbs.marketwatch.com). The president’s statement can be found at the White House Web site: www.pub.whitehouse.gov.

3. Biospace.com. (2000, January 6). Biotech 2030: Eight visions of the future. www.biospace.com.

4. Recent histories of SF include Brian Aldiss’s Trillion Year Spree: A History of Science Fiction and Edward James’s Science Fiction in the Twentieth Century. A good reference work is Clute, J. & Nicholls, P. (eds.). (1995) The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin’s.

5. In his book Constructing Postmodernism (New York: Routledge, 1992), Brian McHale discusses the differences between extrapolation and speculation: “Extrapolative SF begins with the current state of the empirical world … and proceeds … to construct a world which might be a future extension or consequence of the current state of affairs.” (p. 244) “Speculative world-building, by contrast, involves an imaginative leap, positing one or more disjunctions with the empirical world which cannot be linearly extrapolated from the current state of affairs.” (p. 244).

6. Ibid., p. 247.

7. Jameson, F. (1982). Progress versus utopia; or, can we imagine the future? Science Fiction Studies 27, 147-58.

8. Baudrillard, J. (1997). Simulacra and science fiction. In Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

9. Hugo Gernsback (1884-1967) is often referred to as the father of genre SF. In the late 1920s, he began publishing a magazine called Amazing Stories, which published a number of well-known SF authors of the “Golden Age” of SF. In addition, he formulated a term for a new type of fiction emerging at the turn of the century (as exemplified by Verne and Wells): “scientifiction,” in which adventure and romance plots were combined with elements from science and technology (primarily physics, astronomy, engineering).

10. Baudrillard, op.cit., 122.

11. More information on the NASA Ames Virtual Collaborative Clinic can be found at: biocom p.arc. nasa.gov /teleMed /vcc.htm I.

12. Mooney D. & Mikos, A. (1993, November). Growing new organs. Scientific American, 12.

[View PDF] biotechnology, digital art, and science
The Tao of Postmodernism: Computer Art, Scientific Visualization and Other Paradoxes Donna J. Cox SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

The author suggests that a paradigm shift must occur in art criticism to assimilate the nonlinear branching of aesthetic activities in our era. These activities include computer art and scientific visualization, and they reflect many issues addressed in postmodern dialogue such as our image-synthetic, “simulacrum” society. Postmodernism unexpectedly informs most disciplines, including the natural sciences, and is a cultural systemic norm that relates to our electronic information age. The Taoist concept of oneness is used as a metaphor for the interrelatedness of electronic-mediated societies, and this social connectedness explains the enfolding and complex nature of contemporary aesthetic activity. A cybernetic paradigm might provide a better model for criticism than modernism or postmodernism, since this paradigm presents a holistic view that concentrates on creativity and the organization of interrelated systems. The convergence of art with science is assumed as a logical interdisciplinary outgrowth of this electronic oneness.

[View PDF]
The Trained Particles Circus: Dealing With Attractors, Automatons, Ghosts, and Their Shadows Patxi Araujo SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design 3D Print, Design, Installations Paper

This paper identifies the nature of the circus as an ideal place to host a possible scientific-artistic-speculative symbiosis. In it, reality and fiction are found precariously, almost outsider, hardly exportable, halfway between the credible and the fake, amazement and extravagance, science and simulation.

The Transformed And Transforming Image In The Shift From Print To Digital Culture Starla Stensaas SIGGRAPH 1995: Digital Gallery Essay

This paper investigates issues germane to “reading” images in a digital medium by considering both visual language as it is constrained by hardware and software, and visual culture as it is changed by a medium that pushes us towards a thought idiom that embodies multiplicity and simultaneity.

Images in and of a culture reflect our cultural understandings of ourselves. Images in any culture are constantly changing, and as they change, they transform the culture. Likewise, as a culture undergoes change, the images of the culture are transformed. In this way, image and how we read images are both the trace element of and a visual wake following the shifts in our collective understandings. Image operates both as an integral part of an organic, changing energy system that generates momentum towards a culture shift and as a footprint that references visual metaphors in describing a cultural shift that is taking—or has taken—place.

To understand the transformed and transforming nature of images in culture, we must first understand the components of the image, particularly the compositional or visual language and the cultural context of the image. What sits between the visual language and the cultural context of the image is the medium in which the image appears. It is not that the medium is the message as Marshall McLuhan has suggested; rather the medium creates both a cultural context and a medium-particular visual language, contributing significantly to the meaning we “read” from an image.

Medium in a larger sense designates the boundaries of our collective understandings – our epistemology – in the ways in which it is integral to both how we “read” the cultural context and visual language of the text and how that constructed “reading” defines our thought idiom. Just as the medium in a fine arts context creates a medium-specific visual grammar and a cultural context from which the artist is able to shape an image from his or her own inner vision or knowing, so too does medium in the larger sense define what kinds of “pictures” we collectively create to understand or know the world. In this way, the digital medium is much more than a new tool or toy used by visual artists. Rather, this paper argues that our tentative steps towards using this new medium represent a shift as significant as the move from oral culture to print culture — that we are in the midst of a shift from print culture to digital culture.

Through a comparison of images based on Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass and the Mona Lisa, this paper lays a foundation for similar comparisons of hypertexts which use visual images. By looking at the characteristics of digital visual language and cultural context and noting the similarities and differences between them and the more familiar print culture visual language and cultural contexts, this paper considers issues germane to reading images in the digital medium.

[View PDF]
The Unbearable Lightness and Heaviness of Being Yuko Oda SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Art from Physics, Art from Biology Sketch / Art Talk

In the sculptural installation, “The Unbearable Lightness and Heaviness of Being”, rapid prototyping machines were used to print the 3D forms; these sculptures are installed in unique formations with other natural materials. This work contains conceptual and formal contradictions. Conceptually, it embodies an existence of opposing forces – depicting organisms in flight, but rooted. Structurally, the natural and synthetic are fused; fragile, intricate forms made of plastic and advanced digital technologies are juxtaposed with organic matter

3D, prototyping, and sculpture
The Unknown Person Eddie Wong SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Culture and History Analytics Paper

“The Unknown Person” uses mythotechnesis as a fictioning method to re-live a brutal incident in the artist’s family history under colonial rule. Employing machine learning processes and facial recognition techniques, the artist interrogates surveillance and social control systems to explore the fiction of the self, data, and liminal spaces.

AI/Machine Learning
The Wizard of Ethereal Pictures and Virtual Places Timothy Binkley SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

Renaissance artists constructed pictorial space using algorithms based on Euclidean geometry. Computer artists use algorithms based on the analytic geometry of Descartes to compute pictures as well as the subjects in them. An examination of the workings of these two different types of algorithm reveals that the computer offers a radical new approach to making art, which is not yet well understood. Postmodern algorithms for picturemaking are more evanescent than their Renaissance counterparts because computers process information conceptually instead of storing it physically. The computer is neither a passive medium nor a pliant tool, but an active creative partner.

[View PDF]
« First ‹ Previous 1 2 3 4 Next › Last »