Writings and Talks Data Table

Next: Person Table »

« Previous: Artworks Table

Title Author(s) Contributors Exhibition Collection Session Title Category Writing Abstract Full Text References PDF Keywords
There are No Philosophic Problems Raised by Virtual Reality James Elkins SIGGRAPH 1994: Art and Design Show Essay

There is widespread agreement that virtual reality presents seri­ous new challenges to perceived ways of thinking about such fun­damental concepts as reality, simulation, representation, percep­tion, and sensation. It has been seen as a practice that might have deep consequences for conven­tional ways of construing the mind-body problem, including the minimal requirements for a body, requirements for the coherent reception of sensation, and the relation between reason and intu­ition. Most fundamental of all, it has been said to entail a new kind of space, differing from Cartesian and other spaces and requiring new definitions of space and form. This paper argues, on the contrary, that virtual reality does not raise any new philosophic problems.

[View PDF]
Thick & Thin: "Direct Manipulation" & The Spatial Regimes of Human-Computer Interaction Terry Harpold SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

Consider a design trajectory, figured on one end by the screens of early command-line computer interfaces and Coleco Vision’s “Donkey Kong” (1981), and on the other, by the more complex and finely rendered spaces depicted in “Tomb Raider III: The Adventures of Lara Croft” (1999) and Apple’s newly-released Mac OS X.

Lara Croft runs, jumps, tumbles, and blasts away at her opponents in visual fields that are more subtle and perspectivally sophisticated than those inhabited by Mario and “Donkey Kong.” The responses of the screen images to the user’s keyboard, gamepad, or joystick have been enormously enhanced, in both quickness and variety. But the fundamental spatial tropology – the tropology of space: abstract space, empty space, space that doesn’t get in the way of players or their agents on the other side of the glass – remains consistent, from the earliest to the most recent examples of both desktop computing interfaces and computer gaming. The conceptual and psychological commonplace that grounds play in the domains inhabited by Mario and Lara, and the principles of “direct manipulation” in the graphical user interface, is the assumption of a permeable field of agency, essentially free of substance or resistance, or marked only by the sorts of resistance that a more efficient game pad, a faster processor, or a more “intuitive” visual metaphor, may eliminate.

In this paper, I propose that the “thin” spaces typical of the modern GUI and videogaming appear self-evident or “intuitive” to users and designers because they draw upon conventions of spatial thought that strategically foreclose traits of actual embodied encounters of human-computer interaction. It is desirable, I argue, to reconceive the forms of space commonly presupposed by the contemporary discourses of the GUI – to grasp these spaces materially, not as empty domains, open to the user’s purposive manipulations of objects sited within them, but rather as persistently impermeable, resistant – “thick” – spaces, in which objects are only imperfectly manipulated and incompletely detachable from the lived moment of the interaction.

1. Bier, E. M., et al (1995). A taxonomy of see-through tools. Readings in humancomputer interaction: Toward the year 2000. Ronald M. Baecker, et al., eds. 2dCII
San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 517-23.

2. Damisch, H. (1994). The ongin of perspective. Trans. John Goodman. Cambrid MA: MIT Press, 1994.

3. Elkins, J. (1994). The poetics of perspective. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, I�

4. Engelhart, D. C., & English, W.K. (1968). A research center for augmenting human intellect. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA, December 9, 1968. Rea!Video streaming video. URL: sloan.stanford.edu/MouseSite/1968Demo.html

5. Gunning, T. (1994). An aesthetic of astonishment: early film and the (in)credulous spectator. Viewing positions: Ways of seeing.film. Linda Williams., ed. New
Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994, 114 33.

6. Harpold, T. (1999). Dark continen�s: critique of internet metageographies. Postmoder-n culture 9, (.2). URL: muse.jhu.edu/journals/pmdv009/9.2harpold.html

7. Harpold, T. (2000). The misfortunes of the digital text. The emerging cyberculture: Literacy, paradigm, and paradox. Stephanie B. Gibson and Ollie 0. Ovied�
eds. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2000, 129-49.

8. Harpold, T. & Philip, K. (2000). Of bugs and rats: Cyber-cleanliness, cybersqualor, and the fantasy-spaces of informational globalization. Postmodern culture 11, (I) URL: muse.jhu.edu/journals/pmdvOl l/11.lharpoldphilip.html

9. Hutchins, E. L., Hollan, J. D., & Norman, D. A. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. User centered system design: New perspectives on human-computer interaction. Eds. Donald A. Norman & Stephen W. Draper. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrena Erlbaum, 1986, 87-124.

10. Jay, M. (1998). Scopic regimes of modernity. Vision and Visuality. Hal Foster.,cd Seattle: Bay Press, 1988, 2-23.

11. Johnson, J., et al. (1995). The Xerox star: A retrospective. Readings in Humancomputer interaction: Toward the year 2000. Ronald M. Baecker, et al., ed. 2d ed.
San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1995, 53-70.

12. Le Diberder, A. & Le Diberder, F. (1998). L’univers des jeux video. Paris: Editions La Detouverte, 1998.

13. Lefebvre, H. (2000). The productio11 of space. Trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 2000.

14. Milano, D. & Aikin, J. (I 995). The making of MYST: An interview with Robyn Miller. Interactivity 1995, 37-45.

15. Mullett, K. & Sano, D. (1995). Designing visual inteifaces: Communication-orienta techniques. Mountain View, CA: Sun Microsystems, 1995.

16. Nelson, T. H. (1990). The right way to chink about software design. The art of human-computer interface design. Brenda Laurel., ed. Reading, MA: AddisonWesley, 1990, 235-43.

17. Norman, D. A. (1994). Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Santa Monica, CA: The Voyager Company, 1994.

18. Panofsky, E. (1991). Pmpective as symbolic form. Trans. Christopher S. Wood. New York: Zone Books, 1991.

19. Poole, S. (2000). Trigger happy: Videogames and the entertainment revolution. New York: Arcade Press, 2000.

20. Shneiderman, B. (1987). Direct anipulation: A step beyond programming languages. Readings in Human-computer interaction: A multidisciplinary approach.
Eds. Ronald M. Baecker and William A.S. Buxton. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1987, 461-67.

21. Smith, D. C., et al (1982). Designing the Star user interface. Byte 7, (4), 242-82.

22. Stephenson, N. (1999). In the beginning was the command line. New York: Avon Books, 1999.

23. Tognazzini, B. (1992). Tog on interface. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992.

24. Wolf, M. J.P. (1997). Inventing space: Toward a taxonomy of on- and off-screen space in video games. Film Quarterly 5, (I), 11 23.

[View PDF] interactive and video games
Thoughts on Hesse, Digital A and Visual Music Bruce Wands SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Essay

This essay describes the influence of Hermann Hesse’s ideas on my creative work and how I create interactive music sculptures and visual music. In his book, Magister Ludi, Hesse describes a game in which art and music blend together in a way that allows for transformation of creative content into various forms of media. “Variations” is an ongoing exploration of interactive sculpture and visual music that began in 1999 and still continues. The following describes my thought process for early versions of this work, as well as for “Variations 03,” an interactive music installation that was exhibited as part of the SIGGRAPH 2003 A Gallery. My approach in creating this work was to develop a three-dimensional sound matrix that viewers could change as they interacted with the sculpture.

Hesse, H. (1986). Magister Ludi (the Glass Bead Game), trans. Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Bantam, 68, 178.
Wands, B. (1999). Digital Salon Chair’s statement. Leonardo, 32(5), 349-351.

[View PDF]
Threading Time Machines Dominique Nahas SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time Essay

Threading Time, the title of the SIGGRAPH 2005 Art Gallery, invokes a vision in which the essence of lived reality, time, is measured and used through instrumentalization technology. The very subject of much of the technologically-based new media arts is time itself its uncovering, its displacement, its loss, and its reiteration. The urgency for visual artists to explore the experience of time is pervasive. Indeed, what could be more contemporary than an exploration of the lived moment as a network of relations and responses that too often
go unnoticed? The construction and imaging of visual languages through which time is not only expressed but enunciated and parsed by visual poets, have always and will always fascinate audiences. This instrumentalization is evoked and invoked through our language and the way we move, and through the very social relations between people. SIGGRAPH is both an actor in this play and an instigator; it serves as a barometer (giving us a sense of the pressures we face) and a thermometer, indicating the temperature of the body social and political.”

[View PDF]
Time Machine YouSuk Kim, HuiBeom Yu, and Junghwan Sung SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics New Communication: Moving Bodies

Time Machine is a work constructed on the principles of zoetropes. Through the use of a 200 w motor to control speed and rotation, in combination with a pulsating strobe light, the artists create the optical illusion that 15 separate frames of an animation are actually connected. A small step motor added to the work references a number wheel, which spins separately from the animation, so that that the viewer understands the work as being about expanded time.

Topics on Aesthetic Data Visualization: Viewpoints, Interpretation, and Alternative Senses Jin Wan Park SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

Aesthetic data visualization, which looks at complex data sets from an ingenious perspective, is difficult to empirically organize due to its insufficient records. Fortunately, insightful artists and curators have recently provided some notable interdisciplinary exhibitions and publications. This author was a recent participant at such an event; however, it is not easy to summarize the various projects into a single vision because each artist’s value, method, philosophy, and aesthetic preference are unique. This paper categorizes data visualization based on various topics. Aesthetic data visualization is similar to conventional data visualization in that it organizes ambiguous data into a database. Artists then tend to integrate the information into their art. In this regard, it might be possible to identify tendencies and examine data as contemporary iconology, as well as discover hidden possibilities of recent aesthetic data visualizations.

BEVILACQUA, F. 2002. 3D motion capture data: motion analysis and mapping to music. Proceedings of the Workshop/ Symposium on Sensing and Input for Media-centric Systems.

BEVILACQUA, F., NAUGLE, L., VALVERDE, I. 2001. Virtual dance and music environment using motion capture. Proceedings of the IEEE Multimedia Technology And Applications Conference 2001. Burke, J. 2002. Interactive performance environments and the visualization of actor movement. Digital Creativity, 13, 2, 122128.

CAMURRI, A., MAZZARINO, B., RICCHETTI, M., TIMMERS, R., VOLPE, G. 2004. Multimodal analysis of expressive gesture in music and dance performances. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2915.

CARD, S. K., MACKINLAY, J. D., SHNEIDERMAN, B. 1999. Readings in information visualization: using vision to think. Academic Press.

CAWTHON, N., MOERE, A. V. 2007. The Effect of Aesthetic on the Usability of Data Visualization. Proceedings of Information Visualization 2007 (Jul.), 637-648.

CORBY, T. 2008. Landscapes of Feeling, Arenas of Action: Information Visualization as Art Practice. Leonardo, 41, 5, MIT Press, 460-467.

DISALYO, C. F. 1999. Philosophy and Visual Representation: Imaging the Impossible. Leonardo, 32, 2, MIT Press, 83-86.

DOWNIE, M. and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture, 2005. Program in Media Arts and Sciences Choreographing the Extended Agent: performance graphics for dance theater. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

GAVIRIA, A. R. 2008. When Is Information Visualization Art? Determining the Critical Criteria. Leonardo, 41, 5, MIT Press, 479-482.

GOMBRICH, E. H. 2000. Art and Illusion. Princeton University Press. GOODMAN, N. 1978. Ways of Worldmaking. Hackett Pub Co Inc..

KOSARA, R. 2007. Visualization Criticism: The Missing Link Between Information Visualization and Art. Proceedings of Information Visualization 2007 (Jul.), 631-636.

KURBAK, E. News Knitter. http://casualdata.com/newsknitter/.

LAFAYETTE, C., PARKE, F., MCNAMARA, A., GALANTER, P. 2009. I’m not there: extending the range of human senses to benefit wildlife corridors. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2009, Art Gallery, ACM.

LAU, A., MOERE, A. V. 2007. Towards a Model of Information Aesthetic Visualization. Proceedings of Information Visualization 2007 (Jul.), 87-92.

MANOVICH, L. Cultural Analytics. http://manovich.net/culturalanalytics/.

MÜLLER, B. 2006. Poetry on the Road. http://www.esono.com. PARK, J. W. 2011. Information Aesthetics with Visual Genealogy Project. Leonardo, 44, 5, MIT Press, 464-465.

PARK, J. W., CHOE, G. 2009. Visual Genealogy. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2009, Art Gallery, ACM. PALAZZI, M. 2007. Synchronous Objects for One Flat Thing, Reproduced. http://synchronousobjects.osu.edu/.

POUMAN, Z., STASKO, J. T., MATEAS, M. 2007. Casual Information Visualization: Depictions of Data in Everyday Life. IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, 13, 6, 1145-1152.

PSARRA, S. 2009. Architecture and Narrative: The Structure of Space and Cultural Meaning, Routledge. TUFTE, E. R., 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press.

TUKEY, W. J. 1965. The Technical Tools of Statistics. American Statistician.

VIÉGAS, F. B., WATTENBERG, M. 2007. Artistic Data Visualization: Beyond Visual Analytics. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4564, 182-191.

WEST, R., LEWIS, J. P., MARGOLIS, T., GOSSMANN, J., SCHULZE, J., TENEDORIO, D., SINGH, R. 2009. Multiscale Meta-Shape Grammar Objects for: …a grain of sand turns the balance and ATLAS in silico. Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2009, Art Gallery, ACM.

WOOLMAN, M. 2002. Digital Information Graphics. WatsonGuptill.

XU, R. R., ZHAI, S. H. Out of Statistics: Beyond Legal. 2009. http://floatingcube.org/beyondlegal/.

[View PDF]
Topics on Bible Visualization: Content, Structure, Citation Hyoyoung Kim and Jin Wan Park SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

Text visualization begins with understanding text itself which is material of visual expression. To visualize any text first and the expressive approaches theoretical foundation about the about the approaches for text visualization by diverse examples of test visualization which are derived through the various characteristics of the text. To do this, we chose the “Bible” test which is well known globally and digital data of it can be accessed easily and thus diverse test visualizations examples exist and analyzed the example of the bible text visualization. We derived the unique characteristics of the text-content, structure, and quotation as criteria for analyzing and supported validity of analysis by adopting at least 2-3 examples for each criterion. In the result, we can comprehend that the goals and expressive approaches are decided depending on the unique characteristics of the Bible text. We expect to build theoretical method for choosing the materials and approaches by analyzing more diverse examples with various point of views on the basis of this research.

Dang, A http://www.thirteensqua1·es.com/gospelspectruml.l

Dave, K. http://turbulence.org/Workslexegesislrun.html.

Harrison, C. 2009. http://www.chrisharrison.net/index.php/Visualizations/Bible Viz.

ROUSE, R. 2011. http://soulliberty. com/visualizing-the-genealogy­-of-jesus/.

SMITH, S. 2010. Tweeting the Bible. BibleTech 2010.

[View PDF]
Touching Space: Using Motion Capture and Stereo Projection to Create a "Virtual Haptics" of Dance Kim Vincs and John McCormick SIGGRAPH 2010: TouchPoint: Haptic Exchange Between Digits Paper

This paper describes the work of a group of artists in Australia who used real-time motion capture and 3D stereo projection to create a large-scale performance environment in which dancers seemed to “touch” the volume. This project re-versions Suzanne Langer’s 1950s philosophy of dance as “virtual force” to realize the idea of a “virtual haptics” of dance that extends the dancer’s physical agency literally across and through the surrounding spatial volume. The project presents a vision of interactive dance performance that “touches” space by visualizing kinematics as intentionality and agency. In doing so, we suggest the possibility of new kinds of human-computer interfaces that emphasize touch as embodied, nuanced agency that is mediated by the subtle qualities of whole-body movement, in addition to more goal-oriented, task-based gestures such as pointing or clicking.

1. A. Daly, “Dance History and Feminise Theory: Isadora Duncan and the Male Gaze,” Gender in Performance, L. Senelick, ed. (Hanover, NH: Tufts University Press, 1992) 239-259.

2. L. Louppe, trans. S. Gardner, “Corporeal Sources: A Journey through the Work of Trisha Brown,” Writings on Dance, Vol. 15, Winter, 6-n (1996).

3. S.K. Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scribner, 1953).

4. S.K. Langer [3] p. 178.

5. ]. Birringer, “Dance Media and Technologies,” PA], A journal of Performance and Art, Vol. 24, No. I, 84-93 (2002).

6. S. Kozel, Closer: Performance, Technologies, Phenomenology (Cambridge, MA, and London: The MIT Press, 2007).

7. K. Vines and K. Blashki, “Diegesis in Poesis: Real-Time Interactive Dance Performance,” Proceedings of the 6th DAC Conference, Digital Experience: Design, Aesthetics, Practice, IT University of Copenhagen, December 1-3, 2005, 178-183 (2005).

8. K. Vines and M. Delbridge, “The Silk Road Project, interactive media and live motion-capture performance,” Deakin University, 2007.

9. A. Daly [1] p. 253.

IO. M. Franco, Dancing Modernism/Performing Politics (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1995).

II. S.K. Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scribner, 1953).

12. A. Daly [1] p. 239-259.

13. S.K. Langer, Feeling and Form: A Theory of Art (New York: Scribner, 1953).

14. J. Rovan, R. Wenschler, and F. Weiss, “Artistic Collaboration in an Interactive Dance and Music Performance Environment: Seine Hohle Form, a Project Report,” COSIGN 2oor, 1st Internacional Conference on Computational Semiotics in Games and New Media, Amsterdam, September zoor, www.cosignconference.org/conference/zoor/papers, accessed March 20, 2010.

15. H. Bailey, “Ersatz Dancing: Negotiating the Live and Mediated in Digital Performance Practice,” International journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media, Vol. 3, No. 2 & 3, 151-165 (2007).

16. J. Martin, The Modern Dance (New York: A.S. Barnes & Company, 1933).

Toward Autonomous Reality Communities: A Future For Computer Graphics Gene Youngblood SIGGRAPH 1982: Art Show '82 Essay

It may live in a vacuum tube (for a few more years at least), but to hear the Mercantile Masters talk you’d think computer graphics lives in a political vacuum as well. For electronics, however, the last quarter-century has been equivalent to pulling back the string on a bow – the storing of enormous technological potential. Now the string is about to be released in the universal application of that technology: the next 25 years will be the flight of the arrow, propelling us into the Electronic Age and precipitating an historically unprecedented revolution in commu­nications. And in the shadow of the Communica­tions Revolution we begin to understand the awesome cultural and political implications of that protean force we refer to so feebly today as computer graphics.

[View PDF] computer graphics
Towards Computer Game Studies Markku Eskelinen SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Essay

Part 1: Narratology and Ludology
It is relatively stress-free to write about computer games as nothing too much has been said yet, and almost anything goes. The situation is pretty much the same in what comes to writing about games and gaming in general. The sad fact with alarming cumulative consequences is that they are under-theorized; there are Huizinga, Caillois and Ehrmann of course, and libraries full of board game studies, in addition to game theory and bits and pieces of philosophy-most notably those of Wittgenstein’s – but they won’t get us very far with computer games. So if there already is or soon will be a legitimate field for computer game studies, this field is also very open to intrusions and colonization from the already organized scholarly tribes. Resisting and beating them is the goal of our first survival game in this paper, as what these emerging studies need is independence, or at least relative independence.

1. Caillois, R. (1979 l1958]). Man, play, games. Translated by Meyer Barash. New York: Schocken Books; Ehrmann, J. (1969). Homo ludens revisited. In Yale
french studies 41: 38-57.

2. For instance, Parlett, 0. (1999). The Oxford history of board games. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

3. Aarseth, E. (1997). Cyhertext perspectives on ergodic literature. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press; Aarseth, E. (1998 [19951). Dataspillets
diskurs. In Espen Aarseth, Digitalkultur og nettverkskommunikasJon, 75-98 . Bergen: Espen Aarseth; Aarseth, E. (1998). Aporia and epiphany in Doom
and The Speaking Clock: Temporality in ergodic art. In Marie-Laure Ryan (ed.) Cyberspace Textuality, 1-14. Bloomington and Indianapolis: University of
Indiana Press; Crawford, C. (1982). The Art of Computer Game Design. URL: www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/Coverpage.html;
Frasca, G. (1998). Ludology meets narratology. URL: www.jacaranda.org/frasca/ludology.html; Juul, J. (2000). What computer games can and can’t do. Paper presented at the Digital Arts and Culture conference in Bergen.

4. Chatman, S. (1978). Story and discourse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Chatman, S. (1990). Coming to terms. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Genette, G. (1980 [1972]). Narrative discourse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Genette, G. ( 1988 l 1983]). Narrative discourse revisited. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; Prince, G. (1981). Nan-atology. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter; Prince, G. (1987). The Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press .

5. Vatsyayan, K. (1996). Bharata: The Natyasastra. Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.

6. Keene, D. (1995). Japanese aesthetics. In Nancy G. Hume (ed.) Japanese aesthetics and culture, 27-41. Albany: State University of New York.

7. Ehrmann,). (1969). Homo ludens revisited. In Yale French studies 41: 55-57.

8. Motte, W. (1995). Playtexts. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 25.

9. “Nokia Game” (www.nokiagame.com) is interesting in how it makes use of the immediate media environment of the player as the following excerpt from its rules makes clear: “The player must complete various kind of challenges and puzzles based on the given clues in order to proceed to the next stage of”Nokia Game.” A time period for completing a task in question may be limited for some tasks (e.g. for couple of hours or the clue might be given at an exact time). This time limit will be notified to the player with the task or clue in question. The player may find the clues via received short messages to his or her mobile phone or via other various kinds of media, such as Internet, TV, radio, magazines or newspapers. At most stages of”Nokia Game” the player has only one chance to complete the task in question. At each stage part of the players will be excluded from “Nokia Game” based on a wrong answer or action, or not being among the announced number of best players that has performed the task in question.” The game continues for a month (for the winner and a little less for others).

10. Sternberg, M. (1978). Expositional modes and temporal ordering in fiction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

11. Aarseth, E. (1997). Cybertext perspectives 011 ergodic literature. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, I.

12. Aarseth, E. (1997). Cybertext perspectives on ergodic literature. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 60-62.

13. Genette, G. (1980 [1972]). Nan-ative discourse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 215.

14. “Hegiracope,” a web fiction by Stuart Moulthrop, limits the reaction time of its readers to 30 seconds per node. Within that period of time the reader must
decide which narrative thread to follow and choose a link; otherwise the program makes that decision for the player. J n “Reagan Library,” also by Moulthrop, the content of the nodes change when they are revisited for the first three times (there is more text available for the persistent reader). This affects or at least has the capacity to affect and alter the temporal relations between story time and discourse time. See Moulthrop, S. (1995). Hegirascope. URL: raven.ubalt.edu/staff/Moulthrop/HGS; Moulthrop, S. (1999). Reagan Library. URL: raven.ubalc.edu/staff/Moulthrop/rl.

15. “The Last Express” (CD-ROM, Broderbund 1997, see also http://www.lastexpress.com) is an adventure game (a murder mystery) happening in the
real-time of the game world. The player must find the culprit in time, that is, he may run out of time to solve the crime, as there’s a temporal limit to the
duration of the exploration. In other words the wasted time also counts, and  the player has to manipulate discourse time and condense it to contain the relevant
story events.

16. Chatman, S. (1978). S101y and discourse. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 32- 56.

17. Bremond, C. (1980). The logic of narrative possibilities. New Literary History 11:398-411.

18. Aarseth, E. (1998). Aporia and epiphany in Doom and The Speaking Clock: Temporality in ergodic art, 9.

19. Schechner, R. (1988). Pe1f01ma11ce theo,y. London: Routledge, 6-7.

20. Here’s a preliminary example of how to apply some of the key concepts utilized in this paper to “Tetris,” probably the most successful abstract computer game ever.

[View PDF] communication and video games
Transdisciplinarity, Yesterday and Today Carlos Antônio Leite Brandão SIGGRAPH 2007: Global Eyes Paper

In the first part, this paper intends to show some reasons for the advent of transdisciplinarity as a strategy of knowledge in the 21st century. In the second part, it develops the basis for a transdisciplinary attitude required to solve complex and contemporary problems, and to promote a new articulation among science, art, technology, and culture.

[View PDF]
Transforming the Commonplace through Machine Perception: Light Field Synthesis and Audio Feature Extraction in the Rover Project Robert Twomey and Michael McCrea SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America Paper

Rover is a mechatronic imaging device inserted into quotidian space, transforming the sights and sounds of the everyday through its peculiar modes of machine perception. Using computational light field photography and machine listening, it creates a kind of cinema following the logic of dreams: suspended but mobile, familiar yet infinitely variable in detail. Rover draws on diverse traditions of robotic exploration, landscape and still-life depiction, and audio field recording to create a hybrid form between photography
and cinema. This paper describes the mechatronic, machine perception, and audio-visual synthesis techniques developed for the piece.

1. V. Vash, “Synthetic Aperture Imaging Using Dense Camera Arrays,” PhD Thesis, Stanford University (2007).

2. “Integral Photography,” Scientific American, 165 (1911).

3. M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH (1996).

4. The Stanford Multi-Camera Array, <https://graphics.stanford.edu/projects/array/>.

5. “Light Field Gantry,” <http://lightfield.stanford.edu/acq.html>.

6. R. Ng, “Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenoptic Camera,” Stanford University Computer Science Tech Report CSTR 2005-02 (2005).

7. Lytro Illum, <https://www.lytro.com/imaging>.

8. W.G. Sebald, Rings of Saturn (New York: New Directions, 1995).

9. R. Barthes, Camera Lucida (New York: Hill & Wang, 1980).

10. A. Tarkovsky, Instant Light: Tarkovsky Polaroids (London: Thames & Hudson, 2006).

11. G. Richter, Gerhard Richter: Landscapes (Ostfildern: Cantz Verlag, 1998) pp. 84–87, 97–99.

12. GRBL, an open-source, embedded, high-performance g-code-parser and CNC milling controller written in optimized C, <https://github.com/grbl/grbl>.

13. Python / OpenCV Camera Calibration Example, <http://opencv-python-tutroals.readthedocs.io/en/ latest/py_tutorials/py_calib3d/py_calibration/py_calibration.html>.

14. C. Wu, “VisualSFM: A Visual Structure from Motion System” (2011), <http://ccwu.me/vsfm/>.

15. C. Wu, “SiftGPU: A GPU implementation of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)” (2007), <http://cs.unc.edu/~ccwu/siftgpu>.

16. C. Wu, et al., “Multicore Bundle Adjustment,” Proceedings of IEEE CVPR, pp. 3057–3064 (2011).

17. N. Collins, SuperCollider Music Information Retrieval Library (SCMIR), <https:// composerprogrammer.com/code.html>.

18. Black Box 2.0 Festival (6 May–7 June 2015), <http://www.aktionsart.org/allprojects/2015/5/6/ black-box-2>.

19. Supported by an Amazon Web Services Cloud Credits for Research Grant, awarded December 2016.

20. CoreXY Cartesian Motion Platform, <http://corexy.com/theory.html>.

Translation + Pendaphonics = Movement Modulated Media Byron Lahey, Winslow Burleson, and Elizabeth Streb SIGGRAPH 2012: In Search of the Miraculous Paper

Translation is a multimedia dance performed on a vertical wall filled with the projected image of a lunar surface. Pendaphonics is a low-cost, versatile, and robust motion-sensing hardware-software system integrated with the rigging of Translation to detect the dancers’ motion and provide real-time control of the virtual moonscape. Replacing remotely triggered manual cues with high-resolution, real-time control by the performers expands the expressive range and ensures synchronization of feedback with the performers’ movements. This project is the first application of an ongoing collaboration between the Motivational Environments Research Group at Arizona State University (ASU) and STREB Extreme Action Company.

1. F.A.R. @ ASU: Future Arts Research at Arizona State University, futureartsresearch.asu.edu/, accessed March 21, 2012.

2. A. Skriver Hansen, Pendaphonics installation at Platform4, 2008, www.platformart.net/ pendaphonics_demo.htm, accessed March 21, 2012.

3. A. Schmeder, A Portable Pendaphonics Rig, cnmat.berkeley.edu/user/andy_schmeder/blog/2009/0 /31/portable_pendaphonics_rig, accessed March 21, 2012.

4. D. Overholt, et al., Pendaphonics, art installation at the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 2009.

5. A. Skriver Hansen, et al., “Pendaphonics: A Tangible Pendulum-based Sonic Interaction Experience,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction (New York: ACM, 2009) 153–160.

6. A. Freed, et al., “Musical Applications and Design Techniques for the Gametrak Tethered Spatial Position Controller,” Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing Conference, Porto, Portugal, 23-25 (2009).

7. Gametrak, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gametrak, accessed January 7, 2012.

8. Cycling 74, cycling74.com, accessed January 7, 2012.

9. OpenFrameworks, www.openframeworks.cc/, accessed January 7, 2012.

10. E. Streb, Streb: How to Become an Extreme Action Hero (New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2010) 83.

11. CUNYMedia, “Streb: How to Become an Extreme Action Hero,” 2010, www.youtube.com/ watch?v=pOAHYF-WtBM, accessed March 21, 2012.

12. R.E. Kaufman, “A Family of New Ergonomic Harness Mechanisms for Full-Body Natural Constrained Motions in Virtual Environments,” 3D User Interfaces, 2007, 10–11 (2007).

13. F. Yang & Y. Pai, “Automatic Recognition of Falls in Gait-slip Training: Harness Load Cell Based Criteria,” Journal of Biomechanics Vol. 44, No. 12, 2243–2249 (2011).

14. C. Davies & J. Harrison, “Osmose: Towards Broadening the Aesthetics of Virtual Reality,” ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Vol. 30, No. 4, 25-28 (1996).

15. Motion tracking, 3D scanning, and eye tracking solutions from Polhemus, www.polhemus.com, accessed March 15, 2012.

16. Motivational Environments, STREB BRAVE, video-recorded conversation between Elizabeth Streb and Winslow Burleson, 2009, vimeo.com/17161251, accessed March 21, 2012.

17. E. Streb, excerpt from Dancers Defy Gravity, KJZZ 91.5 FM, November 7, 2009.

18. Wii, www.nintendo.com/wii, accessed January 10, 2012.

pendaphonics and motion capture
Transmission: A Telepresence Interface for Neural and Kinetic Interaction Oliver Gingrich, Alain Renaud, Eugenia Emets, and Zhidong Xiao SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

Transmission is both a telepresence performance and a research project. As a real-time visualization tool, Transmission creates alternate representations of neural activity through sound and vision, investigating the effect of interaction on human consciousness. As a sonification project, it creates an immersive experience for two users: a soundscape created by the human mind and the influence of kinetic interaction. An electroencephalographic (EEG) headset interprets a user’s neural activity. An Open Sound Control (OSC) script then translates this data into a real-time particle stream and sound environment at one end. A second user in a remote location modifies this stream in real time through body movement. Together they become a telematic musical interface—communicating through visual and sonic representation of their interactions.

1. Minsky, Marvin, “Telepresence,” Omni, 45–51 (1980).

2. Widely regarded as the first example of telepresence art, Roy Ascott’s La Plissure du Texte was first exhibited at the Musée de l’Art de la ville de Paris. La Plissure du Texte, <http://alien.mur.at/rax/ ARTEX/PLISSURE/plissure.html> (Paris, 1983), accessed March 24, 2014. Mixed media.

3. Sermon, Paul, Telematic Dreaming, <www.paulsermon.org/> (Finland, 1992), accessed February 15, 2014. Mixed media telepresence projection, variable dimensions.

4. Sermon, Paul, Telematic Séance, <www.paulsermon.org/> (Finland, 1993), accessed February 15, 2014. Mixed media, variable dimensions, telepresence projection.

5. Sermon, Paul, Telematic Vision, <www.paulsermon.org/> (Karlsruhe, 1994), accessed February 15, 2014. Mixed media, variable dimensions.

6. Keane, Tina, Couch, <www.luxonline.org.uk/artists/tina_keane/couch.html> (multiple locations, 1998–2003), accessed January 5, 2014. Mixed media, monitors, telepresence environment, and couch. Variable dimensions.

7. Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, The Trace, <www.lozano-hemmer.com/the_trace.php> (1995), accessed March 17, 2014. Outdoor projection. In Christiane Paul, Digital Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2003), 72–77.

8. Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, Displaced Emperors (Ars Electronica, Linz, 1998). Outdoor projection. In Christiane Paul, Digital Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2003), 72–77.

9. A good example for discourse on virtuality is Ken Goldberg’s Telegarden, displayed at Ars Electronica Center (Linz, 1995–2004), <http://goldberg.berkeley.edu/garden/Ars/>, accessed March 15, 2014.

10. Hayles, Katherine N., How We Became Posthuman (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1999).

11. Stelarc, Rotating Brains / Beating Heart, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=m36PRHsX57w>, accessed January 2, 2014. A virtual-reality performance featuring Pauline Oliveros, Stelarc, and the Avatar Orchestra Metaverse (New Adventures in Sound Art SOUNDplay Festival, November 2010, OCAD University, Toronto, Canada).

12. Stanza, Connecting Cities, <www.stanza.co.uk/data/index.html>, accessed January 1, 2014. Live data visualization projection, Liverpool, 2010.

13. Duchamp, Marcel, Bicycle Wheel, <www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=81631> (New York, 1913), accessed January 21, 2013. Mixed media, metal wheel mounted on painted wood stool. Dimensions: 129.5 x 63.5 x 41.9 cm.

14. Lieberman, Zach, et al., Eyewriter interactive read/writing software, <www.eyewriter.org/> (New York, 2010), accessed February 12, 2014.

15. rAndom International, Rain Room, <http://random-international.com/work/rainroom/> (Barbican, London, 2012), accessed February 16, 2014. Water, injection-moulded tiles, solenoid valves, pressure regulators, custom software, 3D tracking cameras, steel beams, water management system, grated floor. 100 sq m.

16. Paul, Christiane, Digital Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 2003) 67.

17. Oliveros, Pauline, Deep Listening, <http://deeplistening.org/site/content/pauline-oliveros> (2009), accessed December 21, 2013.

18. Lucier, Alvin, Music for a Solo Performer, live performance, Brandeis University, 1965.

19. Teitelbaum, Richard, Spacecraft, <www.alvincurran.com/writings/mev.html> (New York, 1967), accessed March 21, 2014. EEG-triggered live musical performance.

20. Rosenboom, David, Biofeedback and the Arts: Results of Early Experiments (Vancouver: Aesthetic Research Centre of Canada, 1974).

21. Miranda, Eduardo, Thinking Music (Plymouth, UK: University of Plymouth Press, 2014).

22. Brouse, Andrew, Biomusic (Montréal: Society for Arts and Technology, 2007).

23. Abramovic, Marina, The Magic of Mutual Gaze, <www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ut9oPo8sLJw> (New York, 2011), accessed February 21, 2014.

24. Cathode, Neam, Cyber Mondrian (Oboro Gallery, Montréal, 2001). EEG Performance.

25. Mori, Mariko, Wave UFO <www.deitch.com/artists/sub.php?artistId=15> (New York, 2003), accessed March 1, 2014.

26. Park, Lisa, Euonia <www.thelisapark.com/> (2013), accessed March 22, 2013.

27. Thompson, Jeffrey D., “Methods for Stimulation of Brainwave Function Using Sound,” <www. neuroacoustic.com/methods.html> (1990), accessed March 13, 2014.

28. Renaud, Alain, “Dynamic Cues for Network Music Interactions,” Proceedings of the SMC Conference 2010, <http://smcnetwork.org/resources/smc2010>, accessed March 20, 2014.

29. Lombard, Matthew, and Theresa Ditton, “At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 3, 1083–6101 (1997).

30. Witmer, Bob, and Michael Singer, “Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire,” Presence Vol. 7, No. 3, 225–240 (June 1998).

31. Sadowski, Wallace, and Kay Stanney, Measuring and Managing Presence in Virtual Environments (Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida, 2002), <http://web.cs.wpi.edu/~gogo/courses/imgd5100/ papers/Sadowski_HVE_2002.html>, accessed March 20, 2014.

32. Sheridan, Thomas, “Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence,” Presence Vol. 1, No. 1, 120–126 (1992).

33. Freeman, Jonathan, “Implications for the Measurement of Presence from Convergent Evidence on the Structure of Presence,” paper presented to the Information Systems Division at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association (New Orleans, LA, 2004). In Campanella Bracken, Cheryl, and Paul Skalski, “Telepresence and Video Games: The Impact of Image Quality,” PsychNology Journal Vol. 7, No. 1, 101–112 (2009).

34. Barfield, Woodrow, and Suzanne Weghorst, “The Sense of Presence Within Virtual Environments: A Conceptual Framework,” Human-Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces Vol B, 699–704 (1993).

35. Prothero, J.D., and H.G. Hoffman, “Widening the Field-of-View Increases the Sense of Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments,” Human-Computer Interaction: HCI Intelligent Multimodal Interaction Environments, Vol. 4552, 393–400 (2007).

36. Hoffman, H.G., et al., “Virtual Chess: The Role of Meaning in the Sensation of Presence,” International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol. 10, 251–263 (1998).

37. Barfield, Woodrow, and Claudia M. Hendrix, “The Effect of Update Rate on the Sense of Presence within Virtual Environments,” Virtual Reality: The Journal of the Virtual Reality Society Vol. 1, No. 1, 3–16 (1995).

38. Oculus Rift, <www.oculusrift.com>, accessed March 21, 2014.

39. International Society for Presence Research, “The Concept of Presence: Explication Statement,” <http://ispr.info> (2000), accessed February 15, 2014.

40. Oxford English Dictionary, <www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/interactive>, accessed January 4, 2014.

41. Lombard, Matthew, and Theresa Ditton, “At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Vol. 3, 1083–6101 (1997).

42. Liu, Yuping, and Shrum, L.J., “What Is Interactivity and Is It Always Such a Good Thing? Implications of Definition, Person, and Situation for the Influence of Interactivity on Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Vol. 4, 53–64 (2002).

43. Witmer, Bob, and Michael Singer, “Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire,” Presence Vol. 7, No. 3, 225–240 (June 1998).

44. Emotiv EEG device, <www.emotiv.com>, accessed March 20, 2014.

45. Zhidong, Xiao, Motion Capture Based Motion Analysis and Motion Synthesis for Human-like Character Animation (Bournemouth University, 2009).

46. Human Connectome Project, <www.humanconnectomeproject.org>, accessed February 21, 2014.

47. Human Brain Project, <www.humanbrainproject.eu>, accessed February 15, 2014.

telepresence and visualization
TV NEEDS MTV LIKE MTV NEEDS COMPUTERS John Whitney SIGGRAPH 1986: A Retrospective pattern potentials for music-with-art Essay

J. S. Bach’s last unfinished work, THE ART OF THE FUGUE, is a magnificent network of simple theme and variations that are interwoven, transposed, inverted, and retrogressed. Some believe that Bach’s counterpoint, which consists of a complementarity of voice-parts, exhibits an affinity with algorithmic computer-program instructions and procedures. I agree, and I believe that a video counterpoint offers a special complementarity between its own musical and its visual voice-parts.

  1. Whitney, John, Digital Harmony, McGraw Hill, New York, 1980.
  2. Whitney, John, John Whitney – Visual Pathfinders Series, Pioneer Laser Disc Corporation, Tokyo, 1984.
[View PDF]
Using Video to Create Avatars in Virtual Reality Joseph A. Insley, Daniel J. Sandin, and Thomas A. Defanti SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Moving: Agency for Virtual Spaces Sketch / Art Talk

The VideoAvatar Library is a collection of functions that works in conjunction with the CAVE Library and can be used to add static, photo-realistic, three-dimensional representations of remote users, as well as other objects or agents, to virtual reality applications. The process involves obtaining views from 360 degrees around the person, then selecting two of these images, one for each eye, to represent the user in 3D space.

[View PDF] interactive and virtual reality
Ut Pictura Poesis: Drawing into Space David Griffin SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

In 1735, Leonard Euler presented a solution to the practical problem of whether a route could be plotted to cross each of seven bridges in Konigsberg once. His negative solution used the simplest of mark-making strategies to resolve a conceptual problem. Euler did not actually cross the town’s bridges, but used them to resolve questions of connectivity, after which diagrammatic representations can be seen as the restructuring of logical problems to allow for inductive reasoning, for fruitful application beyond theory. But what if such a working graphic has as its target something that is simply incomprehensible? What are the upper limits of the denotational logic of such diagrams? This paper presents a drawing-research project that tests the cognitive advantages of technical graphics by directly engaging with things that cannot be made easier to understand through their use.

1. Irrelson, William H., ” Visual Perception of Markings,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 3. No. 2, 171-187 (1996), accessed at <springerlink.com/content/ku4m58p8h38l3570/fulltext.pdf>, 30 June, 20II.

2. Ibid.

3. Willa ts, John, Art and Representation: New Principles in the Analysis of Pictures (Princeton: Princeton Univ Press, 1997).

4. Larkin, Jill, and Herbert Simon, “Why a Diagram Is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words,” Cognitive Science, Vol. II, No. 1, 65-roo (1987), accessed at dinkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pVol.II/S0364021387800265>, 12 December, 2010.

5. Goldschmidt, Gabriela, “The Dialectics of Sketching,” Creativity Research journal, Vol. 4, No. 2,123-143 (1991), accessed at <www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/ro.ro8o/ro4oo419ro9534381>, 14 April, 2ou.

6. Tversky, Barbara, “What Do Sketches Say About Thinking?” AAA! Technical Report SS-02-08, 148-151(2002), accessed at <www.aaai.org/Papers/Symposia/Springhoo2/SS-02-o8/SS02-o8-o22.pdf>, 3 July

7. Cross, Nigel.

8. Feynman, Richard, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

9. Marshack, Alexander, The Roots of Civilization (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972) 136.

10. Wickstead, Helen.

11. Ibid., 16.

12. Wiebe, Eric N., “The Taxonomy of Geometry and Graphics,” journal for Geometry and Graphics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 189-195 (1998), accessed at <http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jgg/jggor_o5/jggo22o.pdf>, 3 July 201I.

13. Netz, Reviel, The Shaping of Deduction in Greek Mathematics: A Study in Cognitive History (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press, 2003).

14. Marshack, Alexander, The Roots of Civilization (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972).

15. Dawkins, Richard, The Blind Watchmaker (London: Penguin, 2006).

16. Miller, Arthur I., ”Aesthetics, Representation and Creativity in Art and Science,” Leonardo, Vol. 28, No. 3, 185-192 (1995), accessed at <www.jstor.org/stable/r576o73>, 7 January, 2010.

17. Feynman, Richard, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

18. Larkin, Jill, and Herbert Simon, “Why a Diagram Is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words,” Cognitive Science, Vol. u, No. 1, 65-roo (1987), accessed at dinkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pVol.II/So364021387800265>, I2 December, 2010.

Virtu-Real Space: Jeffrey Schulz SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Information Technologies and the Politics of Consciousness Essay

A significant shift is occurring in the makeup, physical nature, and composition of space as it is experienced in contemporary culture. This shift, which is a direct result of the ubiquitous presence of information technologies in the cultural landscape, signals that physical components alone no longer comprise the infrastructure of the contemporary social environment. The ads, which show American Express cards in locations where they function as architectural elements (i.e., a bridge support, a path on a golf course, a canopy over a restaurant dining area, and others), indicate that it is now a combination of physical components and virtual systems that support and sustain the “real” world. Virtual credit space, symbolized in the advertisements by the credit card, functions not only as structural support for the physical world, but also as solid footing and shelter for the people who live in that world. And since virtual credit space is operationalized by information technologies, it becomes clear in these commercials that the extent to which physical space has been infiltrated by information technologies is both extreme (the cards are pervasive) and covert (no one in the ads notices the cards). Furthermore, because the cards blend into their surroundings unnoticed, these corporate images also indicate that information technologies are our natural setting. It becomes clear, then, that the use of the credit card icon in these commercials represents the extent to which information technologies have become naturalized as an intrinsic part of contemporary social life.

[View PDF]
Virtual Imaginations Require Real Bodies Dena Elisabeth Eber SIGGRAPH 1999: technOasis Essay

Virtual reality (VR) works of art conjure up ideas such as virtual sex, virtual frontiers, and to some, disembodiment. Those who uphold the notion of disembodiment claim that works of art that embrace VR technology necessarily encourage a state that affirms the Cartesian duality in which people can leave Earth, nature, and body behind. I counter this notion because I do not believe that the mind can be separated from the body; rather, the two are inexplicably intertwined.

Although this “Gibsonesque” scenario is rich with metaphors and metaphysical implications, I suggest that any virtual space is an embodied experience because the imagination of the artist and the viewer refer back to the body, to nature, and to the Earth. From the physical reality of Earth and our bodies, we may understand and perceive many more realities, perhaps facilitated by virtual space art installations. In fact, I maintain that even the virtual is real. It is a perception that is a real experience, which makes reference to our encounters with the physical world and our flesh.

[View PDF] imagination, nature, and virtual reality
Visions of Mind Frank Dietrich SIGGRAPH 1986: A Retrospective Essay

Computer art is unfolding on the basis of scientific and engineering achievements of pioneering personalities, whose vision suggested that it should be possible to wrest something other than calculation speed and numeric precision from those crude and clumsy computers; something that could be turned into meaningful images. They set out to build dedicated machines to interpret an intuitive stroke with a pen or a snapshot taken through the lens of a camera. They designed displays that show more colors and change images faster than the human eye can distinguish. They devised software to generate pictures that appear just like photographs of reality. All of this has been accomplished within the short timespan of two or three decades. The history of computer graphics reads like a tremendous technical success story.

  1. Alan M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, in: Douglas R. Hofstadter, Daniel C. Dennett (eds.) The Mind’s I. Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul, Bantam Books, New York 1982, pp. 53-67.
  2. Calvin Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors. Five Masters of the Avant Garde. Duchamp, Tinguely, Cage, Rauschenberg, Cunningham, Penguin Books, New York 1976, pp 9-68.
  3. Douglas R. Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Vintage Books, New York 1980.
  1.  Alan M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, in: Douglas R. Hofstadter, Daniel C. Dennett (eds.) The Mind’s I. Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul, Bantam Books, New York 1982, pp. 53-67.
  2. Calvin Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors. Five Masters of the Avant Garde. Duchamp, Tinguely, Cage, Rauschenberg, Cunningham, Penguin Books, New York 1976, pp 9-68.
  3. Douglas R. Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid, Vintage Books, New York 1980.
[View PDF]
Visual Anecdote Dietmar Offenhuber SIGGRAPH 2010: TouchPoint: Haptic Exchange Between Digits Paper

The discourse on information visualization often remains limited to the exploratory function -its potential for discovering patterns in the data. However, visual representations also have a rhetorical function: they demonstrate, persuade, and facilitate communication.

In observing how visualization is used in presentations and discussions, I often notice the use of what could be called “visual anecdotes.” Small narratives are tied to individual data points in the visualization, giving human context to the data and rooting the abstract representation in personal experience. This paper argues that these narratives are more than just illustrations of the dataset; they constitute a central epistemological element of the visualization. By considering these narrative elements as parts of the visualization, its design and knowledge organization appear in a different light.

This paper investigates how the “story” of data representation is delivered. By means of ethnographic interviews and observations, the author highlights the different aspects of the visual anecdote, a specific point where the exploratory and the rhetorical functions of visualization meet.

1. S.K. Card, J.D. Mackinlay, and B. Shneiderman, Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

2. E.R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press, 2001).

3. B. Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

4. C. Chen, “Top IO Unsolved Information Visualization Problems,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 25, 12-16 (2005).

5. D. Kaiser, “Stick-Figure Realism: Conventions, Reification, and the Persistence of Feynman Diagrams, 1948-1964,” Representations, 49-86 (2000).

6. D. Kaiser [5]. 7. J. Gallop, Anecdotal Theory (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002).

8. C.F. Chabris and S.M. Kosslyn, “Representational Correspondence as a Basic Principle of Diagram Design,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3426, 36 (2005).

9. K.S. McLeod, “Our Sense of Snow: The Myth of John Snow in Medical Geography,” Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 50, 923-935 (2000).

IO. H. Brody et al., “Map-Making and Myth-Making in Broad Street: the London Cholera Epidemic, 1854,” The Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9223, 64-68 (2000).

11. J. Gallop [7].

12. SENSEable City Lab, www.senseable.mit.edu/.

13. B. Latour [3].

14. SENSEable City Lab, Obama I One People, February 2009, www.senseable.mit.edu/obama/.

15. F. Calabrese and C. Ratti, “Real Time Rome,” Networks and Communication Studies, NETCOM, Vol. 20, No. 3-4, 247-257 (2006).

16. F. Hartmann and E.K. Bauer, Bildersprache: Otto Neurath Visualisierungen, 2nd ed. (Vienna: Facultas. wuv Universitats, 2006).

17. P. Baudisch et al., “Keeping Things in Context: A Comparative Evaluation of Focus Plus Context Screens, Overviews, and Zooming,” CHI ’02: Proceedings of the SIGGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (ACM Press, 2002) 259-266.

Visual History with Choson Dynasty Annals Seong Kuk Park, Eun Ju Lee, and Jin Wan Park SIGGRAPH 2016: Data Materialities Paper

For this paper, the authors selected three historical events taken from the Annals of the Choson Dynasty that represent dramatic and tragic stories about parents and their sons for data visualization. By connecting names with entities indicating conductions from history books, they found interesting patterns that tell stories with embedded relations. The visualized images in this paper were mainly code-generated, based on the data of the Annals, with some graphic embellishment added.

1. J.W. Park, Visual Genealogy, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Art Gallery, San Diego, California, 2007; J.W. Park, Visual Genealogy: MR. Park, Myrang-Hwarok Clan, ACM SIGGRAPH 2009 Information Aesthetics, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2009.

2. J.W. Park, “Information Aesthetics with Visual Genealogy Project,” Leonardo Vol. 44, No. 5, 464–465 (2011).

3. Unlike static historical data, contemporary data grows and becomes big data, which makes it hard to mine and analyze. A good example of computer-based visual analysis for contemporary data is Lev Manovich’s cultural analytics, which covers films, animations, video games, comics, magazines, books and other media. <http://lab.softwarestudies.com/p/cultural-analytics.html>.

4. Carr argues that viewing history as accurate (and independent of human opinion) is improper, because historians selectively choose facts based on particular interests. E.H. Carr, What is history?, 3rd Revised ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002). Hayden White also points to the problem of historical representation, which recounts not merely a neutral real event, but entails an ontological and epistemic choice with distinct ideological and even specific political implications. H. White, The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).

5. In 1870, Francesco Datini’s business records were found in Prato. These private records provide insight into the medieval-renascent merchant class in the 14th and 15th centuries.

6. Historical facts recorded by day, month, and year, which is the most common and traditional way of recording history in Eastern Asia.

7. The Annals was listed in UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register, and despite the existence of other annals around the world, this is the first and only case of annals being listed.

8. Annals of Taejong, fourth year (1404), February 8th, fourth article. “After the king fell from a horse, he looked left and right, and he asked, ‘Do not let historiographers know this.’”

9. A similar structure can be found in “Saga” or in the epic novel. A. Cappelli et al., “The Social Network of Dante’s Inferno,” Leonardo Vol. 44, No. 3, 246–247 (June 2011).

10. The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, <http://sillok.history.go.kr/main/main.do>.

11. From the movie Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015): “Nothing will stand in our way. I will finish what you started.” The father and son relationship is the same in this epic contemporary fictional saga as the one recorded in the Annals.

12. J. Brown and J. Brown, China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs (Seattle: Book Surge Publishing, 2006).

13. “Taejong” is Bang Won Yi’s posthumous royal name.

14. H. Park, “King Taejong as Statesman: From Power to Authority,” Korea Journal, 207 (Winter 2006).

15. M. Waller, Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2006) 116.

16. A. Whitelock, Mary Tudor: England’s First Queen (London: Bloomsbury, 2009).

17. On executing people whose cardinal sins are exposed after death: Records show that Oliver Cromwell of England was also sentenced to a posthumous execution by Charles II. R.L. Bradshaw, God’s Battleaxe (Bloomington, IN: Xlibris, 2010) 379–381.

18. Although the king’s revenge was the only motive that had been recognized, the political confrontation between the two parties of courtiers might also be a plausible reason. His opponents used the king’s fury to gain political leverage.

19. Quotation from the movie Sado (2015), directed by Joon-ik Lee.

20. Yeongjo created a policy with the intention of adjusting the balance between political parties to prevent conflicts.

Visual Indeterminacy in GAN Art Aaron Hertzmann SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Culture and History Analytics Paper

We describe artwork based on GANs with the concept of visual indeterminacy, connecting them to art history and to the science of perception of art. GANs seem predisposed to producing indeterminate images; we hypothesize about why this is and where to go next.

AI/Machine Learning
Wandering World Peter Williams and Sala Wong SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

We imagine to use technology and reach from our senses and immediate surroundings. Wandering World represents an accumulation of attempts at connecting through physical and virtual activities. Over a one-year period and situated in different geographic (and predominantly political) locations (California and Indiana, USA), the artists simultaneously walked, connected to each other and world events through mobile technologies and using 360-degree, omnidirectional cameras to record images from their respective environments. Along with sounds, and extracted, amassed and whirling within concentric, virtual spheres, flowers compete for attention as subject matter – disorientating place, time, ideology, and thought process.

Water Planet Ana Z. Ursyn SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
Wearable Forest Clothing System: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction Hill Hiroki Kobayashi, Ryoko Ueoka, and Michitaka Hirose SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

Wearable Forest is a garment that bioacoustically interacts with distant wildlife in a remote forest through a networked remote-controlled speaker and microphone. It expresses the unique bioacoustic beauty of nature and allows users to interact with a forest in real time through a network to acoustically experience a distant forest soundscape, thus merging humans and nature without great environmental impact. This novel interactive sound system can create a sense of unity between users and a remote soundscape, enabling users to feel a sense of belonging to nature even in the midst of a city. This paper describes the theory of interaction between the Human and the Biosphere through the design process of the Wearable Forest concept.

1. R. Ueoka and H. Kobayashi, SIGGRAPH 2008 Electronic Art & Animation Catalog (New York: ACM Press, 2008) 103.

2. H. Kobayashi, R. Ueoka, and M. Hirose, “Wearable forest: feeling of belonging to nature,” Proc. of International Conference on Multimedia, 1133-1134 (Oct-Nov 2008).

3. H. Kobayashi, R. Ueoka, and M. Hirose, “Human Computer Biosphere Interaction: Towards a Sustainable Society,” Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, SIGCHI (April 2009).

4. A. Murayama, et al., Tsushima Leopard Cat Conservation Planning Workshop, Mitsushima Community Center (Tsushima City, Nagasaki, Japan, 2006) 6.

5. D. Suzuki, Zen and Japanese Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1959).

6. Live Sound from Iriomote Island, SoundBum: http://www.soundbum.org/.

7. The Stethoscope for the Earth’s water, Aquascape: http://aqua-scape.jp.

8. H. Kobayashi, et al., “Development of a networked remote sensing embedded system for bio-acoustical evaluation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 120, No. 5, 3324-3325 (2006).

9. Definition of Human Computer Interaction, ACM SIGCHI: http://sigchi.org/cdg/cdg2.html#2_1.

10. S. P. Lee, et al., “A mobile pet wearable computer and mixed reality system for human-poultry interaction through the internet,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 10, No. 5, 301-317 (2006).

11. Y. Itoh, et al., “TSUNAGARI communication: fostering a feeling of connection between family members,” Proc. on Human Factors in Computing Systems, SIGCHI, 810-811 (2002).

12. Lisa Stead, et al., “The Emotional Wardrobe,” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol 8, No. 3-4, 282-290 (2004).

13. S. Seymour, Fashionable Technology, The Intersection of Design, Fashion, and Technology (Wien, Austria: SpringerWienNewYork, 2008).

14. R. Ueoka and M. Hirose, “SoundTag: children’s interactive play based upon RFID employed wearable computer,” Digital Creativity, Vol. 19, No. 3, 162-173 (2008).

15. K. Hartman, et al., Botanicalls: The Plants Have Your Number: http://www.botanicalls.com.

16. K. Goldberg, The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2000).

17. M. Begon, J.L. Harger, and C.R. Townsend, Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities, 3rd ed., (Oxford, England: Blackwell Science, 1996).

18. R.E. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, Species diversity in ecological communities, historical and geographical perspectives (Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press, 1993).

19. D.P. Reagan and R.B. Waide, The food web of a tropical rain forest (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

20. W.A. Searcy and S. Nowicki, The evolution of animal communication: reliability and deception in signaling systems (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005).

21. B. Krause, “Bioacoustics, Habitat Ambience in Ecological Balance,” Whole Earth Review, Vol. 57, Winter (1987).

22. M. Muuss, Packet Internet Grouper: http://ftp.arl.mil/~mike/ping.html.

23. H. Kobayashi, et al., “Wearable Forest – HCBI clothing embrace our bodies with the sense of unity with nature by trolling a tune with remote soundscape,” Journal of the Soundscape Association of Japan (2008).

24. M. Kass, et al., “Snakes: active contour models,” International Journal of Computer Vision, Vol. 2, No. 4, 321-331 (1988).

25. M. J. Lowis, “Music as a trigger for peak experiences among a college staff population,” Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3-4, 351-359 (2002).

26. M. Gurevich, C. Chafe, G. Leslie, and S. Tyan, “Effect of Time Delay on Ensemble Accuracy,” Proc. of Intl. Soc. Musical Acoustics, Nara (2004).

27. K. Williams and D. Harvey, “Transcendent Experience in Forest Environments,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, 258 (2001).

Weaving Objects: Spatial Design and Functionality of 3D Woven Textiles Claire Harvey, Emily Holtzman, David Kessler, Joy Ko, Brooks Hagan, Rundong Wu, and Steve Marschner SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design 3D Print, Design, Installations Paper

Our interdisciplinary design research group demonstrates a novel methodology and new computational tools to access 3D weaving as a spatial and material design platform for innovative softgoods and accessory products. We develop a fully formed 3D woven shoe and document volumetric textile behavior and simulation technology for creative design.

well-formed.eigenfactor: Consideration is Design and Data Analysis Moritz Stefaner, Martin Rosvall, and Carl Bergstrom SIGGRAPH 2009: Information Aesthetics Showcase Information Aresthetics: Designing Interactions Panel / Roundtable

This talk discusses the rationale, process, and mechanisms behind the interactive visualizations for the well-formed.eigenfactor project.

What Does a Very Large-Scale Conversation Look Like? Warren Sack SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Paper

The new electronic spaces that I am interested in have the following characteristics in common:

• They are large. Many server sites now support interchanges between hundreds and thousands of people. Usenet newsgroups and large listservs are the most common such sites. I call these usually text-based, usually asynchronous interchanges very large-scale conversations.

• They are network-based. More specifically, they support network-based communities. The boundaries of these spaces and the communities they support are not geographic boundaries. Communities of artists, writers, and scientists are examples of pre-Internet, network-based communities (communities based upon a social network and some shared interests or needs). Network-based communities are of a different kind than geographically based communities like neighborhoods, cities, and nations. Network-based communities (for example, the scientific community) have continued to grow with the help of new network technologies, but contemporary technologies have also engendered a variety of new communities (for example, the open source community).

• They are public. As more and more people gain access to the Internet from their homes or schools rather than from their workplaces, the Internet increasingly becomes a space for public discussion and exchange. Very large-scale conversations are a common event within the confines of large industry (for example, the huge number of communications among thousands of people required to design and build an airplane or coordinate production of a film). However, these have a distinctly different character than the very large-scale conversations in which people are participating as individuals rather than as employees. The Internet is engendering the production of new public spaces that may offer the means to reinvigorate public discourse.

1. Cannon, S. & Szeto, G. (1998). Parasite. URL: parasite.io360.com/index.html and www.cybergeography.org/atlas/topology.html

2. Card, S. K., Mackinlay, J. & Shneiderman, 8. (editors), Readings in information visualization: Using vision to think. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann
Publishers, 1999.

3. Deleuze, G. (1998). Foucault. Trans. & ed.: Sean Hand (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988).

4. Donath, J. Karahalios, K. & Viegas, F. (1999). Visualizing conversations. In Proceedings of HICSS-32. Maui, HI: IEEE Computer Society, January 5-8, 1999.

5. Dourish, P. & Chalmers, M. (1994). Running out of space: Models of information navigation. Short paper presented at HCI’94.

6. Dumit, J. (2000). Artificial participation: An interview with Warren Sack. In Zeroing in on the tear 2000. Late editions 8, Cultural studies for the end of the century, edited by George E. Marcus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

7. Fellbaum, C. ed. WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.

8. Foucault, M. Parrhesia and community life. In Discourse and truth: the problematization of parrhesia, six lectures given at the University of California at
Berkeley, October November /983, edited by Joseph Pearson. URL: www.parrhes,ast.com

9. Garfield E. (1979). Citation indexing: Its the01y and applications in science, technology and humanities. New York: John Wiley, 1979.

10. Grefensrette G. (1994). Explorations in automatic thesaurus discovery. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.

11. Hague, 8. N. & Loader, 8. D. (1999). Digital democracy: discourse and decision making in the information age. New York: Routledge, 1999.

12. Hirst, G. & St-Onge, D. (1998). Lexical chains as representations of context for the detection and correction of malapropisms. In WordNet: An Electronic
Lexical Database, edited by Christiane Fellbaum. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998.

13. Hutchby, I. & Wooffitt, R. (1998). Conversation analysis: principles, practices, and applications. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 1998.

14. Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

15. Lyotard, J. F. (1988). The differend: Phrases in dispute. Trans. Georges Van Den Abbeele. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1988.

16. Munro, A. J., Hook, K., & Benyon, D. (Eds.). Social navigation of information space. New York: Springer Verlag, 1999.

17. Resnick, P. & Varian, H. R. (I 997). Introduction: Special section on recommender systems. Communications of the ACM, 40, (2).

18. Richard, F. (2001). Utterance is place enough: Mapping conversation. Cabinet: A quarterly magazine of art and culture, 2, Spring 200 I.

19. Sack, W. (1998). Artificial intelligence and aesthetics. In The encyclopedia of aesthetics, volume 1, Michael Kelly, editor-in-chief. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

20. Sack, W. (1999). Stories and social networks. In the Proceedings of the American Association of Artificial intelligence workshop on narrative intelligence, edited by Phoebe Sengers and Michael Mateas. Cape Cod, MA: AAA], November 1999.

21. Sack, W. (2000). Discourse diagrams: Interface design for very large-scale conversations. In the Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System
Sciences, Persiste11t Conversations Track. Maui, HI: IEEE Computer Society, January 2000.

22. Sack, W. (2000). Conversation map: A content-based Usenet newsgroup browser. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User fnterfaceJ.
New Orleans, LA: Association for Computing Machinery, January 2000.

23. Sack, W. & Dumit, J. (1999). Very large-scale conversations and illness-based social movements. Presented at Media in Transition. Cambridge, MA: MIT,
October, 1999.

24. Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994.

25. Kurgan, L. (2000). Spot 083-264: Kosovo, June 3, 1999. In World Views: Maps & Art curated by Robert Silberman. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

26. Tsagarousianou, R., Tambini, D., & Bryan, C. (Eds.). Cyberdemocracy: Technology, cities, and civic networkJ. New York: Routledge, 1998.

27. UNDP. New technologies and the global race for knowledge. In The Human Development Report. UN Development Programme, 1999.

[View PDF] communication and connection
What Good is a Computer to an Architect? William Mitchell SIGGRAPH 1984: CAD Show Paper

What good is a computer to an architect? Palladio found pen and paper perfectly adequate, after all. And it is hard to imagine Frank Lloyd Wright at a keyboard. (It just doesn’t go with a cape and cane.) The most sophisticated piece of technology on most architects’ desks, even today, is an electric pencil sharpener.

[View PDF] architecture and technology
Why Digital Prints Matter Victor Acevedo SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

In the beginning(s) was the digital image.

It has been established that “computer art” started approximately in 1950 with Ben Laposky’s oscilloscope images, which he generated with analog electronics and then recorded onto high-speed film. This event occurred in the wake of the then-recent developments of the first electronic digital computers: a machine built by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in 1941 and then the well known Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), the first major general purpose computer, introduced in 1946. Completed in 1951, the Whirlwind Computer was the very first to be equipped with a (vector scope) video display monitor. A “bouncing ball” animation was actually produced to demo this feature.

[View PDF] computer art and history
Why it Isn't Art Yet Kenneth C. Knowlton SIGGRAPH 1986: A Retrospective Essay

For twenty plus years, I have participated in “computer art” as a developer/ experimenter /inventor of languages/interfaces/techniques, as a collaborator/teacher/writer, and as a “computer artist.” As a result of all this, I finally feel like an established practitioner in an enterprise that doesn’t (at least not yet) exist.

[View PDF]
Will There Be "Computer Art" in 2020? Anne Morgan Spalter SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

It is ironic that the more computers infiltrate our daily lives, the more they seem to disappear. Computer-driven technologies like ATMs and email are part of the subconscious landscape of modern life and require no more attention to use than, say, tuning the radio while driving the car. As the science of computer graphics continues to progress, will computer art become a more prominent feature of the art world? Or will it, like the technology it uses, merge, at least in part, with the background of other art materials and methods?

[View PDF] computer art and technology
Within an Ocean of Light: Creating Volumetric Lightscapes Anthony Rowe SIGGRAPH 2012: In Search of the Miraculous Paper

This paper documents explorations into an alternative platform for immersive and affective expression within spatial mixed reality installation experiences. It discusses and analyzes experiments that use an advanced LED cube to create immersive, interactive installations and environments where visitors and visuals share a common physical space. As a visual medium, the LED cube has very specific properties and affordances, and optimizing the potential for such systems to create meaningful experiences presents many interlinked challenges. Two artworks exploring these possibilities are discussed. Both have been exhibited internationally in a variety of settings. Together with this paper, the works shed some light on the design considerations and experiential possibilities afforded by LED cubes and arrays. They also suggest that LED grids have potential as an emerging medium for immersive volumetric visualizations that occupy physical space.

1. A. Lütgens, “Twentieth-Century Light and Space Art,” Olafur Eliasson: Your Lighthouse: Works with Light 1991–2004 (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2004).

2. N. De Oliveira et al., Installation Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1994) 14.

3. R. Morris, “Notes on Sculpture,” Artforum (February and October 1966), reprinted in G. Battcock, ed., Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1968) 222–235.

4. J. Butterfield, The Art of Light and Space (New York: Abbeville, 1993) 8.

5. P. Milgram & F. Kishino, “A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays,” IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. E77-D, No. 12 (1994).

6. C. Paul, Digital Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 2003) 71–72.

7. S. Snibbe & H. Raffle, “Social Immersive Media: Pursuing Best Practices for Multi-user Interactive Camera/Projector Exhibits,” Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Boston: ACM, 2009) 1447–1456.

8. S. Lavin, Kissing Architecture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011).

9. For example, see P. Dalsgaard & K. Halskov, “3D Projection on Physical Objects: Design Insights from Five Real Life Cases,” Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (New York: ACM, 2011) 1041–1050.

10. Squidsoup, www.squidsoup.org/.

11. C. Frayling et al., Practice-based Doctorates in the Creative and Performing Arts and Design (Lichfield, UK: UK Council for Graduate Education, 1997).

12. B. Sevaldson, “Discussions & Movements in Design Research: A Systems Approach to Practice Research in Design,” FORMakademisk Vol. 3, No. 1, 8–35 (2010).

13. C. Salter, Entangled: Technology and the Transformation of Performance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010) xxxiii.

14. A. Rowe & A. Morrison, “Dynamic Visualisation in Three Physical Dimensions,” Digital Arts and Culture (2009).

15. S. Schubiger-Banz & M. Eberle, “The NOVA Display System,” Transdisciplinary Digital Art: Sound, Vision and the New Screen (Berlin: Springer, 2008) 476–487.

16. T. Cuevas, H. Obrist, & P. Santoscoy, Jesús Rafael Soto: Visione in movimento (Milan: Silvana Editoriale, 2007).

17. S. Feiner, et al., “Windows on the World: 2D Windows for 3D Augmented Reality,” UIST ’93 Proceedings of the 6th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (New York:
ACM, 1993).

18. Squidsoup, Surface, www.squidsoup.org/surface/.

19. E.T. Hall, The Hidden Dimension (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1966).

20. C. Randall & A. Rowe, “Come Closer: Encouraging Collaborative Behaviour in a Multimedia
Environment,” Interactive Technology and Sociotechnical Systems; 12th International Conference, VSMM 2006, 281–289 (2006).

21. Squidsoup, Scapes, www.squidsoup.org/scapes/.

volumetric lightscape and mixed reality
Wonderland Hye Yeon Nam SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
XEPA - Autonomous Intelligent Light and Sound Sculptures That Improvise Group Performances Philip Galanter SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

XEPA anticipates a future where machines form their own societies. Going beyond mere generative art, machines will exhibit artistic creativity with the addition of artistic judgment via computational aesthetic evaluation. In such a future our notions of aesthetics will undergo a radical translation. The XEPA intelligent sculptures create animated light and sound sequences. Each sculpture “watches” the others and modifies its own aesthetic behavior to create a collaborative, improvisational performance. No coordination information or commands are used. Each XEPA independently evaluates the aesthetics of the other sculptures, infers a theme or mood being attempted, and then modifies its own aesthetics to better reinforce that theme. Each performance is unique and widely varied. XEPA is an ever-evolving artwork, intended as a platform for ongoing experiments in computational aesthetic evaluation.

1. Galanter, Philip, “What is Generative Art? Complexity Theory as a Context for Art Theory,” International Conference on Generative Art (Milan: Generative Design Lab, Milan Polytechnic University, 2003).

2. Gell-Mann, Murray, and Seth Lloyd, “Information Measures, Effective Complexity, and Total Information,” Complexity, Vol. 2, No. 1, 44–52 (1996).

3. Boden, M.A., The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2004), xiii.

4. Galanter, Philip, “Computational Aesthetic Evaluation: Past and Future,” Computers and Creativity, ed. J. McCormack and M. D’Inverno (Berlin: Springer, 2012).

5. Livio, Mario, The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World’s Most Astonishing Number, 1st trade paperback ed. (New York: Broadway Books, 2003), viii.

6. Zipf, G.K., Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort: An Introduction to Human Ecology (Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Press, 1949), xi.

7. Manaris, Bill, et al., “Developing Fitness Functions for Pleasant Music: Zipf’s Law and Interactive Evolution Systems,” Applications of Evolutionary Computing Proceedings Vol. 3449, 498–507 (2005).

8. Machado, Penousal, and Amílcar Cardoso, “All the Truth About NevAr,” Applied Intelligence Vol. 16, No. 2, 101–118 (2002).

9. Arnheim, Rudolf, Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye, new, expanded, and revised ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974), x.

10. Berlyne, D.E., Aesthetics and Psychobiology (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971), xiv.

11. Galanter, Philip, “What is Generative Art? Complexity Theory as a Context for Art Theory,” International Conference on Generative Art (Milan: Generative Design Lab, Milan Polytechnic University, 2003).

12. Martindale, Colin, “Aesthetics, Psychobiology, and Cognition,” The Foundations of Aesthetics, Art, and Art Education, ed. Frank Farley and Ronald Neperud (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988), 7–42.

13. Martindale, Colin, et al., “The Effect of Extraneous Stimulation on Aesthetic Preference,” Empirical Studies of the Arts Vol. 23, No. 2, 83–91 (2005).

14. Saunders, Rob, and John S. Gero, “Curious Agents and Situated Design Evaluations,” AIEDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing Vol. 18, No. 2, 153–161 (2004).

15. Martindale, Colin, The Clockwork Muse: The Predictability of Artistic Change (New York: Basic Books, 1990), xiv.

aesthetics and intelligent art
Yturralde: Impossible Figure Generator Esteban Garcia Bravo and Jorge A. Garcia SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft Paper

This research highlights José María Yturralde’s most significant involvement and contributions to early computer art from 1968 to 1973. Yturralde collaborated with artists and scientists to expand and redefine his understanding of shapes, and explored ways that the mainframe computer could be used as a tool for complementing his art practices. He is known for developing a mathematical model with which he was able to create a highly sophisticated program where Penrose geometries could be recombined algorithmically. However, there is limited evidence and access to the code of the actual software. The authors’ goal is to further understand Yturralde’s contribution by developing a re-significance of his model, which they have accomplished through a modern interpretation of manuscripts.

1. Now called Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

2. E. Castaños Alés, Los Orígenes del arte Cibernético en España, Doctoral Dissertation (Alicante : Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, 2000) p. 165.

3. E. Huhtamo and J. Parikka, eds., Media Archaeology: Approaches, Applications, and Implications (University of California, Berkeley, 2011) p. 1.

4. Ibid., p. 3.

5. Burbano, A. Inventions at the Borders of History: Re-Significance of Media Technologies from Latin America, Doctoral Dissertation (University of California Santa Barbara, 2013) p. 35.

6. C. Reas, “Software Structures” (2004), retrieved 10 April 2015, <http://artport.whitney.org/commissions/softwarestructures/>.

7. P. Barreiro López, La abstracción geométrica en España (1957-1969) (Madrid: CCSIC, 2009) pp. 66-67.

8. V. Aguilera Cerni, retrieved 10 April 2015, <www.yturralde.org/Paginas/ObraEt02.html>.

9. J.M. Yturralde, Interview [Sound Recording] (3 March 2014).

10. Ibid.

11. Castaños Alés [2], pp. 86-87.

12. Yturralde [9].

13. Castaños Alés [2], p. 96.

14. Yturralde [9].

15. Castaños Alés [2], p. 119.

16. M. Rosen, A Little-Known Story about a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer’s Arrival in Art, (MIT Press, 2011).

17. Castaños Alés [2], p. 100.

18. Ibid., p. 118.

19. Yturralde [9].

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Castaños Ales [2], p. 132.

23. Yturralde [9].

24. Penrose L, Penrose R. “Impossible objects: A special type of visual illusion,” British Journal of Psychology 1958;49(1):31–33.

25. Castaños Alés [2], p. 164.

26. Yturralde [9].

27. J.M. Yturralde, “Ejemplo de una aplicación metodológica continuando un trabajo sobre estructuras geométricas,” in [Art Catalog] Ordenadores en el arte (Centro de Cálculo de la Universidad de Madrid, 1969), pp. 41-45.

28. Ibid.

29. This is not a complete description and we are actually using directed graphs. For the interested reader a formal description of graphs as mathematical entities can be seen in any book about graph theory. A good example is: Introductory Graph Theory by Gary Chartrand. Dover Publications, 1984.

30. Yturralde [27]. We reproduced the same geometric process described on Yturralde’s texts and sketches.

31. One neighbor points to the Variable and the neighbor that the Variable points to.

32. This is a very common restriction in Computational Geometry, where they like to say that the variables are in “general position.”

33. The cases C and D look suspiciously symmetric. However, they are not the same case, since we are dealing with directed graphs.

34. Yturralde [27].

35. Yturralde [9].

36. A chronology is posted on Yturralde’s website: <www.yturralde.org/n-cronologia-es.html>. This website served as point of contact to access documentation originally published in the CCUM newsletters. The space in this article is too short to document Yturralde’s accomplishments.

37. O. Alonso Molina. “Preciso como una gota de agua,” La Razón (18 December 1999).

“Rebooting Memories”: Creating “Flow” and Inheriting Memories from Colorized Photographs Anju Niwata and Hidenori Watanave SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

We explain the creation of “flow” in social media and real spaces using AI technology to colorize black-and-white stock photographs from digital archives and other locations. When visualizing the colors that the photographs should have had, the impressions of “freezing” in black-and-white photographs are “rebooted,” and viewers can more easily imagine the events depicted. This bridges the psychological gap between past events and modern daily life, sparking conversations. The “flow” generated here causes the emergence of lively communication and increases the value of information. This method can help to pass precious materials and memories of past events into the future.

« First ‹ Previous 1 2 3 4