Writings and Talks Data Table

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Title Author(s) Contributors Exhibition Collection Session Title Category Writing Abstract Full Text References PDF Keywords
doing interface ecology: the practice of metadisciplinary Andruid Kerne SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time Paper

The interface can be modeled as a an ecosystem: connected, dynamic, and characterized by relationships. The model is predicated on a process of working with the interface as a border zone between heterogeneous systems of representation. This paper uses sensation, embodiment, and semiotics to initiate this process, by addressing the range of systems of representation that are involved in its own production. This presence of the theorist is found to create a self-referential metastructure. As an alternative to the beneficial but ad hoc assemblages of multi-, inter, and trans-disciplinary approaches, the ecosystems approach establishes that meshing of systems of representation is an inherent property of interface phenomena. The meshing process causes elements from the involved representational systems to recombine, forming hybrids. Recombinant information is a structural formula for creating new knowledge, which can be invoked for that purpose, intentionally. Theorists are part of the environment that they theorize about. The products of theorizing are information artifacts that are also part of the environment. They themselves function as interfaces. The term “metadisciplinary” is developed to describe the inherent and self-referential nature of this structure. The structure of metadisciplinarity connects theory and practice. This stands in direct contrast with studies approaches, such as performance studies, which is separate from theater practice.

Ascot, R. (2002). Mission: CAiiA: Center for Advanced Inquiry in
the Interactive Arts – STAR: Science Technology and Art
www.caiia-star.net/mission/index.html, 2002.
Baudrilllard, J. (1983). The ecstasy of communication, in Foster,
H.,ed, The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, New
York: New Press, 1983.
Brooks, R. (1999). Cambrian intelligence: The early history of the
Al. Cambridge, MIT Press, 1999.
Clifford, J., and Marcus, G. (1986). Writing Culture: The Poetics
and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: U of California Press,
De Landa, M. (1997). A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History.
New York: Zone Books, 1997.
Ehrlich, K. (1997). A conversation with Ted Selker, ACM
Interactions, 34-47, 1997.
Finke, R.A., Ward, T.B., Smith, S.M. (FWS, 1992). Creative
Cognition, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1992.
Focault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge and The
Discourse on Language, New York: Pantheon Books, 1972.
Gaver, W. (1991 ). Technology affordances, Proc CHI 1991,
Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures, New York:
Basic Books, 1973.
Gibson, J.J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual
Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1979.
Grossman, R. (1980). Women’s place in the integrated circuit,
Radical America, 14: 1, 29-49, Jan-Feb 1980.
Hayles, K.N. (1999). How we became posthuman: virtual bodies
in cybernetics, literature, and informatics, Chicago: Univ of
Chicago, 1999.
International Labour Organization (ILO, 2002). LABORSTA
database of labour statistics,
www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/portal/online.htm, 2002.
Kerne, A. (2000). CollageMachine: An interactive agent of web
recombination. Leonardo 3:5, 347-350, Nov 2000.
Kerne, A. (2002). Interface ecosystem, the fundamental unit of
information age ecology. Proc SIGGRAPH 2002: Art and
Animation, 142-145.
Kerne, A. (2004a). Structures of Interactive Information,
Kerne, A. Smith S.M., Mistrot, J.M., Sundaram, V., Khandelwal,
M.,Wang, J.M. (2004b). Mapping Interest and Design to
Creative Process During Mixed-Initiative Information
Composition, Creativity & Cognition Symposium: Interaction:
Practice and Theory, 2004.
Lamontagne, V. (2001). Interview with Marek Walczak & Martin
Wattenberg, www.mobilegaze.com/mg3/apartment_en.html,
Mateas, M. (2003). Interactive Drama, Art, and Artificial
Intelligence, Ph.D. Thesis. Technical Report CMU-CS-02-206,
CMU School of Computer Science. Dec 2002.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception. New
York: Humanities Press, 1962.
Millard, E. (2003). Inside the Hidden World of Motherboard
TechNewsWorld, Oct 8, 2003.
Mil ler, G.A. (1956). The Magical number seven, plus or minus
two: some limits on our capacity for processing information,
·Psychology Review, 63:81-97, 1956.
·Norman, D. (1988). The Psychology of Everyday Things, New
York: Basic Books, 1988.
Norman, S.J. (1997). Transdisciplinarite et genese de nouvelles formes artistiques, Delegation aux arts plastiques, Ministere de la
Culture de France.
www. culture. fr /culture/mrt/bibliotheque/norman/norman. rtf, 1997 .
Nowotny, H., Scott, P., Gibbons, M. (2001). Re-Thinking Science:
Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty, Oxford: Polity.
Nowotny, H. (2004). The Potential of Transdisciplinarity, in Rethinking
www.interdisciplines.org/interdisciplinarity/papers/5/24, Jan 2004.
Oxford University Press. (OED, 1992). Oxford English Dictionary on
Compact Disk, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Schiphorst, T. (1997). Bodymaps: artifacts of touch, Electric Garden,
Visual Proc SIGGRAPH 1997,72-73.
Upsdell, C. (2004). Browser News: Stats > Trends, 279:Jan 24,
2004, www.upsdell.com/BrowserNews/stat_trends.htm.

[View PDF]
Dream Clanger Baden Pailthorpe, Charles Gretton, and Rhys Healy SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Dream Clanger is a hybrid art/computer science project that re-imagines AFL Player GPS data and match video. Building on Baden Pailthorpe’s 2017 major exhibition ‘Clanger’, this work pushes the envelope further by integrating machine learning.

Dream Grrrls: Metaphors Margaret Dolinsky and Grit Sehmisch SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Moving: Agency for Virtual Spaces Sketch / Art Talk

The process of designing multi-user virtual environments (VE) is similar to the process of designing code or imagery, in that it is necessary to passionately maintain a catalog of ideas and references. VE design combines these passions to construct a consistent graphical user interface (GUI) with metaphors for exploration and self-reflection in a collaborative team effort.

[View PDF] interactive and virtual environment
Drunk on Technology, Waiting for the Hangover: A Test Plot Paul Hertz SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Paper

No abstract available.

[View PDF]
Dynamic3: Interactive Physics and Physicality In Three Dimensions Reed Kram and John Maeda SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Tooling: Implements for Creativity Sketch / Art Talk

We lose the joy of pliability in our interactions with the computer when we get lost in a cacophony of visual iconic references. There is no grace. Dynamic3 emphasizes the subtleties of interaction. Not what is seen, but what is felt. A physics-based computational model and a fluid physical interface amplify the expression.

[View PDF] interface, interactive, and visualization
Early History of French CG Cecile Welker SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

This paper provides an historical summary of the emergence of computer graphics research and creation in France between 1970 and 1990, a period of innovation that transformed artistic practice and French visual media. The paper shows the role of these developments in the history of art, the evolution of digital technology, and the expansion of animation and visual effects in the film industry.

1. Goldstine, Herman H., The Computerfrom Pascal to Von Neumann (Princeton: Princeton Univ
Press, 1972). Randell, Brian, The Origins ofDigital Computers (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982).
Metropolis, Nicholas, et al., ed., A History ofComputing in the Twentieth Century (Orlando:
Academic Press, 1980).

2. Chatelin, Philippe, ed., Actes du Colloque sur l’Histoire de l’Informatique en France
(Grenoble: INPG, 1988).

3. Pinteau, Pascal, Ejfets Speciaux: Un Siecle d’Histoires (Geneve: Minerva, 2003).

4. Mounier-Kuhn, Pierre-Eric, L’informatique en France de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale au Plan Ca/cul:
(Paris: Presses de l’Universite Paris-Sorbonne, 2010).


5. Schafer, Valerie, La France en Reseaux (1960-1980) (Paris: Nuvis, 2012).

6. Stourdze, Yves, and Armand Mattelart, Technologie, Culture et Communication: Rapport Remis
a jean-Pierre Chevenement, Ministre d’Etat, Ministre de la Recherche et de l’Jndustrie (Paris: La
Documentation Frarn;:aise, 1982).

7. Special Images de Synthese, Sciences et Techniques n° Hors Serie Mai (1984).

8. SIGGRAPH Video Review <www.siggraph.org/publications/video- review>.

9. Guedj, Richard A., Methodology in Computer Graphics: Seillac I: IFJP Workshop on Methodology
in Computer Graphics, Seillac, France, May I976 (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1979).

IO. Masson, Terrence, CG IOI: A Computer Graphics Industry Reference (San Francisco: New Riders,
1999) 2n-348. Carlson, Wayne, ” A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation,” <design.osu.edu/carlson/history/lesson9.html>.

11. “Histoire de la Synthese d’Images en France,” research program of l’Ecole Nationale
Superieure des Arts Decoratifs de Paris, <hist3d.ensad.fr>.

12. Bezier, Pierre, “Essai de Definition Numerique des Courbes et des Surfaces Experimentales:
Contribution a l’Ecude des Proprietes des Courbes et des Surfaces Paramerriques Polynomiales a
Coefficients Vectoriels,” These d’Etat, Universite Paris 6, 1977.

13. Comparetti, Gilbert, “Essai de Definition d’un Moniteur d’Animation de Structures,” Revue
Franraise d’Jnformatique et de Recherche Operationnelle, No. 6, 83-95 (1967).

14. Comparetti, Gilbert, “Annecy: Un Systeme d’Animarion par Ordinareur” (C.E.A., 1974).

15. ‘Tordinateur Individuel,” No. 83 (1986).

16. Lucas, Michel, “Techniques de Programmation et d’Utilisation en Mode Conversarionnel des
Terminaux Graphiques,” these de doctorar, Universire de Grenoble, 1968. Lecarme, Olivier, “Contribution a l’Ecude des Problemes d’Urilisarion des Terminaux Graphiques,” these de docrorat d’Etat, Universite de Grenoble, 1970.

17. Catmull, Ed, dir., A Computer Animated Hand (1972).

18. Gouraud, Henri, “Computer Display ofCurved Surfaces,” doctoral thesis, University of Utah,

19. Insricur de Recherche en Informarique er en Automarique (INRIA).

20. Association Frarn;:aise pour la Cybernerique Economique er Technique.

21. Guedj, Richard A., Methodology in Computer Graphics: Seillac I: IFIP Workshop on Methodology
in Computer Graphics, Seillac, France, May I976 (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1979).

22. With Philippe Coueignoux, Michel Gangnet.

23. Henri Mairre, Francis Schmitt.

24. Claude Cadoz, Annie Luciani.

25. Insritut National de l’Audiovisuel.

26. Lucas, Michel, “La Recherche en Synthese d’Image en France Depuis 30 Ans,” Rapport de Recherche
(Nantes: Insticur de Recherche en Informatique, 1995).

27. Moles, Abraham, Art et Ordinateur (Paris: Casterman, 1971).

28. “Une Esthetique Programmee,” Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, II May-6 June 1971.

29. Couchot, Edmond and Norbert Hillaire, “Art et Informatique,” L’art Numerique: Comment la
Technologie Vient au Monde de !’Art (Paris: Flammarion, 2005).

30. Huitric, Herve and Monique Nahas, Variations Continues, Vincennes, France, 1975-76.

31. Foldes is a traditional animator of British nationality born in Hungary.

32. Foldes, Peter, “Metadata,” Canada, 1971; “Hunger,” Canada, 1973.

33. Welker, Cecile, Le Volume de l’Image Numerique, Actes du Colloque Image Numerique:
Esthetiques, Ideologies, Techniques (Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2012).

34. Broadcast on La Sept in 1987 and 1991-92.

35. Interview with Michael Gaumnitz, Paris, 3 April, 2012.

36. Comparetti, Gilbert, Tune! and Tore, France, 1967-1984.

37. Mohr, Manfred, Cubic Limit, France, 1973.

38. Special Images de Synthese, Sciences et Techniques n Hors Serie Mai (1984).

39. Mechoulam, Claude, “La Simulation du Pilotage,” La Recherche, No. 153 (1984).

40. “Xavier Nicolas, Jerzy Kular: Sogitec, the First CG Studio in Paris: ExMachina Main Studio in
Paris at the end of the So’s,” fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.siggraph.org/paris/fmx/Nicolas-Kular. html>.

41. “Canon T70,” dir. Fran<;:ois Pecnard, France, 1984.

42. “GDF,” dir. Fran<;:ois Pecnard, France, 1983.

43. “BNP,” dir. Daniel Fauchon, France, 1983.

44. “Sharp,” dir. Xavier Nicolas, France, 1983.

45. “Nouvelles images,” name given to CG in France in the 1980s.

46. “Maison Vole,” dir. Andre Martin and Philippe Queau, France, 1983.

47. Interview with Christian Guillon, Paris, II October, 20II.

48. “L’Unique,” dir. J. Diamand Berger, France, 1986.

49. “Pierre Buffin: The Beginning of Buf Compagnie in 1985,” fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media. siggraph.org/paris/fmx/Buffin-Buf.htmb.

50. “La Vie des Beres,” dir. Jacques Bled et al., France, 1986-87.

51. “Jacques Bled: The Beginning of MacGuff in 198s; Today One of the Main Studios in Paris,”
fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.siggraph.org/paris/fmx/Bled-MacGuff.htmb.

52. “Georges Lacroix: Fant6me,” fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.siggraph.org/paris/fmx/

53. “Les Fables Geometriques,” 50 episodes of 3 minutes, dir. Renato and Georges Lacroix, France,

54. Henon, Pierre and Cecile Welker, “Faire Vivre l’Informatique Graphique,” acres du Colloque
pour un Musee de l’Informatique en France, Paris, 8 November, 2012,
<www.mt.lsee-informatique-numerique. fr>.

55. Moles, Abraham, Art et Ordinateur (Paris: IBM, 1975).

56. Dahan, Pierre-Louis and Phac Le Tuan, “Approche Theorique d’une Technique: Perspectives et
Ombres Calculees,” these de docceur ingenieur, Paris, ENST, 1977.

57. Images made with Euclid software.

58. “Bobos-Nonos,” dir. Monique Nahas and Herve Huitric, France, 1979.

59. Henon, Pierre, “La Creation de !’Atelier d’Image et d’Informatique ( AII),” interview, Paris,
6 March, 2012.

60. Couchot, Edmond, “ATI: Le Mariage de !’Art et de la Technologie,” Sy mposium: Le Futur A un
Passe, Paris, 21 June, 2011.

61. Constructivists (e.g., Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Hans Richter, and Marcel Duchamp) have demonstrated
an interest in cinema and its “fourth dimension” of moving images from the 1920s onward.

62. Couchot, Edmond, Semaphora III, France, 1965-1973. Krueger, Myron, Videoplace, USA, 1974.
Agam, Yaacov, Fiat Lux, 1967.

63. Kowalski, Piotr, Cube No. 8, 1967.

64. Kowalski, Piotr, Time Machine, 1981.

65. DeWitt, Tom, Pantomation System, 1982.

66. Welker, Cecile, ‘Tart Numerique Renouvelle-t-il la Creation Comemporaine?” (academic essay, 2009).

67- “La Petite Danseuse,” dir. Michel Bret, France, 1985.

68. “La Plume,” dir. Michel Bret, Edmond Couchot, Marie-Helene Tramus, France, 1988.
The idea and design of “La Plume” go back to 1983. It was co be presented in a show titled Electra
(Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, 1983), but the show failed financially. Since 1988, there have
been several versions of the device; the latest consists of a cloud of feathers (see Figure n).

69. “Je Seme a Tout Vent,” dir. Michel Bret, Edmond Couchot, Marie-Helene Tramus, France, 1990.

70. Fuchs, Philippe, Les Interfaces de la Realite Virtue/le (Montpellier: Le Corum, 1996).

71. Fuchs, Philippe, Le Traite de la Realite Virtuelle (Paris: Presses de !’Ecole des Mines, 2006).

72. Shaw, Jeffrey, The Legible City, 1989-1990.

73, “Le Pissenlit” (originally “Je Seme a Tout Vent”), dir. Michel Bret, Edmond Couchot, Marie-Helene
Tramus, France, 1990.

74. “Animation, la France Cartonne,” Telerama, No. 3279 (2012).

75. “L’image de Synchese a la Conquete d’Holly wood,” Sciences et Techniques, No. 8 (1984).

76. “Olivier Emery: Imagix-3D: The Beginning of 3D Animation Software Running on a PC in the 8o’s,”
fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.siggraph.org/paris/fmx/Emery-Imagix.htmb.
n Chabrier, Rodolphe, “Cinq Amis dans le Vent,” Symposium: Le Futur A un Passe, Paris, 21 June, 20n.

78. “Jean-Charles Hourcade: INA, First CG Trials; TDI the Creation of the Explore Software,” fmx/09
Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.siggraph.org/paris/fmx/Hourcade-Explore.htmb.

79. Segura, Jean and Veronique Gode, “Prestataires en lnfographie: l’Etat de la France en 1993,”
Sonovision, No. 367 (1993).

80. Segura, Jean, ” Images de Synchese: Accord Ina Thomson,” La Lettre de Sciences & Techniques, No. 68 (1986).

81. Corte, Olivier, “3-D Animation in France,” Computer Graphics World, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1996).

82. “Sub-Oceanic Shuttle,” dir. Jerzy Kular, 1991.

83. “La Cite des Enfants Perdus,” dir. Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro, France, 1995.

84. “Pierre Buffin: The Beginning of Buf Compagnie in 1985,” fmx/09 Stuttgart, 8 May, 2009, <media.

85. “Alien” and “The Matrix,” for instance.

86. “Maison Vole,” dir. Andre Martin and Philippe Queau, France, 1983.

87. “Tron,” dir. Steven Lisberger, USA, 1982.

88. “Luxo Jr.,” dir. John Lasseter, USA, 1986.

French CG and art history
Embodisuit Sophia Brueckner SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

A collaboration between Sophia Brueckner and Rachel Freire, the Embodisuit allows its wearer to map signals onto different places on their body. It both critiques and offers an alternative to current trends in wearable technology. Most wearables harvest data from their users to be sent and processed elsewhere. The Embodisuit flips this paradigm. Informed by embodied cognition, the suit instead receives signals from an IoT platform, and each signal controls a different haptic actuator on the body. Knowledge can be experienced ambiently without necessitating the interpretation of symbols by the conscious mind. The suit empowers wearers to reconfigure their boundaries strengthening their connection to the people, places, and things that are meaningful to them. Furthermore, we hypothesize that by changing the way people live with data, it will change the type of data that people create.

Emergent Aesthetics - Aesthetic Issues in Computer Arts Mihai Nadin SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

The production of art, as much as any other production, takes place in the context of human interaction-with others, with nature, with tools, with artifacts, and with ideas from times passed. Artistic work, more than any other, is probably a projection of the experiential structure of the act of producing artifacts (or events) with qualities socially acknowledged as artistic and values culturally celebrated as aesthetic. Throughout history, the patterns of human interaction have continuously changed, and so has art. Nonetheless, changes like the ones we experience today are unprecedented, requiring that we understand that the condition of art is probably more dependent than ever on the condition of humanity in general, and of science and technology in particular.

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Enhanced Family Tree: Evolving Research and Expression Fan Xiang, Shunshan Zhu, Zhigang Wang, Kevin Maher, Yi Liu, Yilin Zhu, Kaixi Chen, and Zhiqiang Liang SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Genealogical Visualization, Intimate AI, and VR Paper

“Enhanced Family Tree” reimagines the possibilities of family trees with an evolving series of exhibits. Their new approach may reveal questionable relationships in genealogical records. Moreover, the authors’ use of an organic metaphor of a “tree” can be further extended, resulting in organic forms that stimulate the imagination.

Scientific Visualization and VR
Entropy and FatFinger: Challenging the Compulsiveness of Code with Programmatic Anti-Styles Daniel Temkin SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives Art Papers Session #1 Paper

Coding, the translating of human intent into logical steps, reinforces a compulsive way of thinking, as described in Joseph Weitzenbaum’s “Science and the Compulsive Programmer” (1976). Two projects by the author, Entropy (2010) and FatFinger (2017), challenge this by encouraging gestural approaches to code. In the Entropy programming language, data becomes slightly more approximate each time it is used, drifting from its original values, forcing programmers to be less precise. FatFinger, a Javascript dialect, allows the programmer to misspell code and interprets it as the closest runnable variation, strategically guessing at the programmer’s intent.

  1. J. Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation (London: WH Freeman & Co., 1976) pp. 111–131.
  2. Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, Programmed Visions (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011) pp. 19–54.
  3. reddit.com, “What’s Your Most Controversial Technical Opinion?,” posted 8 December 2017: <www.reddit.com/r /programming/comments/7i nq/whats_your_most_controversial_technical_opinion/> (accessed 10 January 2018).
  4. Scott Reynolds, “Well Architected != Over-Architected”: <https://lostechies.com/scottreynolds/2009/10/01 /well-constructed-over-architected/>.
  5. Jimmy Soni and Rob Goodman, A Mind at Play (2017) pp. 161–162.
  6. Ben Olmstead and Daniel Temkin, “Interview with Ben Olmstead—esoteric.codes. Retrieved 28 September2017,” esoteric.codes (2014): <http://esoteric.codes/post/101675489813/interview-with-ben-olmstead>.
  7. John E. Hopcraft, Rajeev Motwani and Je rey D. Ullman, Introduction to Automata eory, Languages, andComputation (2008).
  8. “Drunk Eliza,” Meta lter (2012): <www.meta lter.com/113232/Drunk-Eliza>.
  9. Curt Cloninger, “GltchLnguistx: e Machine in the Ghost / Static Trapped in Mouths” (2010): <www.lab404.com/glitch/>.
  10. Igor Pavlov, “SpellFucker” (2017): <https://spellfucker.com/>.
  11. Daniel Temkin, “ ree Obfuscators for Natural Language” (2017): <http://esoteric.codes/post/168502942367/three-obfuscators-for-natural-language>.
  12. Michael Matteas and Nick Montfort, “A Box, Darkly: Obfuscation, Weird Languages, and Code Aesthetics,” inProceedings of the 6th Digital Arts and Culture Conference (2005) pp. 144–153.
  13. David Lowe, “Sparkl: A Tiny Implementation of Command-Line ‘Sparkline’ Data Visualization,” InternationalObfuscated C Code Contest, 2013 (2013): <www.ioccc.org/2013/dlowe/hint.html>.
  14. Martin Kleppe and Daniel Temkin, “Interview with Martin Kleppe,” esoteric.codes (2017): <http://esoteric.codes/post/157780744195/interview-with-martin-kleppe>.
Entr’acte Jordon Geiger SIGGRAPH 2012: In Search of the Miraculous Paper

Looking at new public-space formations today, the roles of new technologies grow not only prominent but also noticeably time-sensitive. Due in part to the rapidly changing nature of communications media and the diverse stakeholders, the theatrical “entr’acte” appears to be an apt model for forms and durations of public space with diverse performers (both human and material elements) of different sorts: entr’acteurs. How is public space as physical construct changing with new embedded forms of computing? How is a public formed? What new material sensibilities emerge? And what role does their essentially fleeting or transitional character play?

1. The field of urban computing is already being vigorously studied, and its history and theory are being written as they evolve. Refer for example to the annual UbiComp, Pervasive, and MediaCity conferences around the world and to recent books such as M. Shepard, ed., Sentient City: Ubiquitous Computing, Architecture, and the Future of Urban Space (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011) for more.

2. M. Weiser, “The Computer for the 21st Century,” Scientific American, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 94–104 (September 1991).

3. G. Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science, Vol. 162, 1243–1248 (December 1968).

4. A. Bouchard, La Langue Théatrale, Vocabulaire (Paris: Arnaud et Labat, Libraires-Editeurs,1878).

5. E. Canetti, Masse und Macht (Hamburg: Claassen Verlag, 1960). www.google.com/url? q=http%3A%2F%2Fopenlibrary.org%2Fsearch%3Fpublisher_facet%3DClaassen&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNFavVRy62zoHaouVOCjSST7c3SPeQ

6. H. Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 2003).

7. W.H. Whyte, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (New York: Municipal Art Society of New York, 1979).

8. A. Boal, Theatre of the Oppressed (New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1993).

9. This dialogue of sorts plays out in text, first proposed in A. Artaud, “Le Théâtre et son Double,” Collection Métamorphoses No. IV (Paris: Gallimard, 1938), and continued in B. Brecht, 1948–1956: Antigonemodell 1948: Couragemodell 1949. Über die Benutzung von Modellen (Berlin: AufbauVerlag, 1964).

10. The show is presented online at www.continuouscity.org.

11. Super Vision, a collaboration with the design firm dbox, is documented online at www.google.com/url? q=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.superv.org&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNFzwr4qSQ8wmJsGCPSpGrTRHc7xQ.org/.

12. A precursor to this sort of event construct that has received a fair bit of interpretation of late is Ant Farm’s 1975 Media Burn, in which the group created an elaborate Independence Day faux-reportage at the launch and crash of a souped-up Cadillac into a pyramid of flaming televisions at San Francisco’s Cow Palace parking lot.

13. This work and its history are recounted thoughtfully and with quotes from the artist on the web site of the Dia Center for the Arts, at www.diaart.org/sites/page/51/1295.

14. The project was produced in my 2010 graduate level “Entr’acte” studio, taught for the Situated Technologies Research Group at the University at Buffalo.

urban computing and situated technology
Erasing Boundaries: Intermedia Art in the Digital Age Paul Hertz SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Panel / Roundtable

“Intermedia” is a term coined by the Fluxus artist and theorist Dick Higgins which refers to works of art that include structural elements not usually associated with the medium being performed. Although intermedia can be “multimedia” it certainly does not have to be. In this panel we would like to make the distinction between the two terms.

In intermedia, the compositional process works across the boundaries between media or even fuses media. Thus intermedia implies structures that are shared by or translated from one medium to another: in this respect it is a more specifically defined term than multimedia. While it is sometimes called “synesthetic art,” intermedia does not seek to imitate the physiological phenomenon of synesthesia, but approaches it metaphorically. It extends the creation of form across sensory modalities without necessarily promoting a tight coupling of multisensory events. Synesthetic coupling is just one potential contrapuntal technique for intermedia, a kind of parallel movement. Other possibilities abound, and intermedia is just getting started as an artform.

With the advent of digital multimedia and real time interaction and performance with computers, intermedia can now achieve a precision and synchronicity of events that were not possible until the last two decades. Moreover, digital media enable compositional structures to operate at all levels of granularity and with a degree of abstraction that places all media on the same plane. One could argue that digital intermedia is the high-level process that corresponds to the low-level truism: all media is data, a single substance. Intermedia suggests that we explore that substance with all available senses.

This panel will examine the historical concept of intermedia, compositional methods and processes for creating intermedia, issues of sense perception and sensory coupling in the reception of intermedia, and the implications of digital multimedia, real time performance and interaction for the future development of intermedia. We also expect to open the discussion to the metaphoric and even magical qualities associated with synesthesia, and to the relation of multisensory stimuli to memory, but by grounding the panel in compositional practices and structures we hope to avoid some of the pitfalls of interpretation that the mystique of synesthesia often inspires.

While we cannot predict the trajectory of intermedia across the imaginary of the 21″ century, it holds out the possibility of new forms and experiences. At a time when we have begun to suspect that formal invention had collapsed along with the historical avantgarde, this may even permit us a brief moment of euphoria. We would do well to remember how, at the beginning of the 20th century, the cult of synesthesia promised a mystical revelation that did not transpire. At the beginning of the 21st century, intermedia points to a perceptual revelation that may well transpire. The instruments are in our hands and it seems we have only to learn to play them. To what end and for whom? As much as with the formal and technical issues of digital intermedia, we must also grapple with this question.

[View PDF] digital imagery, hybridization, intermedia, intertextuality, multimedia, and transformation
Etheroid Jun Fujiki SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

An etheroid is a device that mediates an invisible “something” to exist in space. Each etheroid behaves autonomously, without any higher orders dictating how it is to behave. If you set a new etheroid near another one, the new etheroid will be added to the movements of the existing etheroids. Each propagates this behavior to one of the surrounding etheroids repeatedly. Thus, the movements of etheroids as a whole creates an invisible moving “something”. This concept is to create an atom of media for existence, which is invisible. The devices operate under a physical neural network. An infrared LED illuminates invisible lights within a certain range. Together with a general communication module called XBee, the etheroid uses XBee to send information from one to another. The information list corresponds to a temporary storage area. Since the list is constantly updated, operation will continue even if the number of etheroids increases or decreases.

Ethics, Ecology, and the Future: Art and Design Face the Anthropocene Kayla Anderson SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft Paper

Art and design have become platforms for discussing the long-term implications of technology and modernity, most recently in relation to ecological crisis and the Anthropocene. While artists, designers and curators seek to raise awareness of the Anthropocene, it is important to remain critical of the narratives these practitioners develop. This paper provides a brief critique of how these issues are being addressed in the cultural sphere, suggesting that works of critical, conceptual and speculative design may be best suited to addressing the Anthropocene as they foster critical thinking about how we relate to technology and science, how we organize ourselves politically and socially, and how we define ourselves in the broader ecological assemblage. Artists and designers discussed include Marina Zurkow, Una Chaudhuri, Oliver Kellhammer, Fritz Ertl and Sarah Rothberg; Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby; and Jae Rhim Lee.

1. Ian Sample, “Anthropocene: Is this the new epoch of humans?” The Guardian, 16 October 2014.

2. Joseph Stromberg, “What Is the Anthropocene and Are We in It?” Smithsonian Magazine, January 2013.

3. Timothy Morton, The Ecological Thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010) p. 2.

4. Joanna Zylinska, Minimal Ethics for the Anthropocene (Michigan: Open Humanities Press, 2014) pp. 19, 125.

5. Zylinska [4] p. 19.

6. Zylinska [4] pp. 14, 108.

7. Zylinska [4] p. 20.

8. Rory Rowan, “Art, The Anthropocene and the iPhone 3G,” GeoCritique, 31 May 2014.

9. “Adrián Villar Rojas: Today We Reboot the Planet,” <www.serpentinegalleries.org>; “Yes Naturally,” <www.gemeentemuseum.nl>.

10. Morton [3] p. 16.

11. Morton [3].

12. Jae Rhim Lee, “My Mushroom Burial Suit,” TED Global, July 2011.

13. Lee [12].

14. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013) p. 43.

15. Dunne and Raby [14].

16. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, “Critical Design FAQ,” 2007.

17. Marina Zurkow, Una Chaudhuri, Oliver Kellhammer, Fritz Ertl and Sarah Rothberg, “Dear Climate,” <www.dearclimate.net>.

18. Zurkow [17].

19. Zylinska [4] pp. 129–130.

20. Rowan [8].

21. Benjamin Bratton, “Some Trace Effects of the Post-Anthropocene: On Accelerationist Geopolitical Aesthetics,” E-Flux Journal, #46, June 2013.

22. “Dunne & Raby,” Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, <www.dunneandraby.co.uk>.

23. Dunne and Raby [22].

24. Dunne and Raby [22].

25. Bratton [21].

26. Bratton [21].

27. Anthony Dunne, “Radical New Communities,” Royal College of Art Sustain Talks 2013-14,<http://sustain.rca.ac.uk >.

28. Dunne and Raby [22].

29. Dunne and Raby [22].

30. Dunne and Raby [22].

31. Jae Rhim Lee, “Infinity Burial Project,” <http://infinityburialproject.com>.

32. Joshua E. Keating, “The 10 TED Talks They Should Have Censored,” Foreign Policy, 17 May 2012.

33. Natalie Jeremijenjko, “Farmacy,” <http://environmentalhealthclinic.net>.

Experimental Interaction Unit: Commodities of Mass Destruction Anuradha Vikram SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

This paper describes several projects by the now-defunct Experimental Interaction Unit that use prod-uct design, software engineering, and digital networking to uncover collective behaviors that contribute to systems of social control. Biology and human behavioral studies are essential aspects of this critique. Experimental Interaction Unit’s projects from 1996 to 2001 represent subversive use of technology to reveal unrecognized aspects of human interaction with networks, such as how telematic distance psy-chologically absolves individuals from taking responsibility for their actions. The fear of vulnerability to terrorist actions, including biological warfare and electronic interference, is exploited in these works, in order to expose the ways in which security is promised in exchange for control.

1. One example is Natalie Jeremijenko, an engineer whose artistic practice centers on dispelling the perceived neutrality of technology. In collaborations with the Bureau of Inverse Technology, she has also worked under the rubric of a research corporation. Jeremijenko “redeploys” commercially available products for her own critical purposes. Her Feral Robotic Sniffer Dogs (2001-05) are modified versions of mass-marketed toy robots, which anyone can alter according to her instructions. For more information, see Timothy Druckrey, Bureau of Inverse Technology_Bit Plane, CTRL [SPACE]
(Karlsruhe, Germany: ZKM Center for Art and Media, and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002) 603, and the Feral Robotic Sniffer Dogs web site: http://xdesign.ucsd.edu/feralrobots/.

2. Paulos developed Legal Tender while a PhD candidate in computer science and engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, under department chair Ken Goldberg. He received his degree from that department in May 2001. ACM SIGGRAPH 96 Visual Proceedings: The Art and Interdisciplinary Programs of SIGGRAPH 96 (New York: ACM Press, 1996) 43-44.

3. John Canny and Eric Paulos, “Tele-Embodiment and Shattered Presence: Reconstructing the Body for Online Interaction,” The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet, ed. Ken Goldberg (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2000) 283.

4. John Canny and Eric Paulos, “Tele-Embodiment and Shattered Presence: Reconstructing the Body for Online Interaction,” The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet (op. cit.) 283.

5. Experimental Interaction Unit, I-Bomb: http://eiu.org/experiments/i-bomb/tech_killed.html.

6. Hakim Bey, The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism (New York: Autonomedia, 1991): http://www.hermetic.com/bey/taz3.html.

7. Experimental Interaction Unit, I-Bomb: http://eiu.org/experiments/i-bomb/tech_killed.html.

8. Ibid.

9. Experimental Interaction Unit, Dispersion: http://eiu.org/experiments/dispersion/.

10. US Department of Homeland Security, Threats & Protection: http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?theme=29.

11. Experimental Interaction Unit, Limelight: http://eiu.org/experiments/limelight/info.htm.

Expressive AI Michael Mateas SIGGRAPH 2000: Art Gallery Paper

The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has produced a rich set of technical practices and interpretive conventions for building machines whose behavior can be narrated as intelligent activity. Artists have begun to incorporate AI practices into cultural production – into the production of artifacts and experiences that function as art within the cultural field. In this paper, I describe my own practice of AI-based cultural production: expressive AI. I will attempt to provide a preliminary understanding of this practice by both situating expressive AI with respect to other discourses on AI and by working inductively from my own Al-based art work. I will first provide a brief description of three of my AI-based art pieces. These will serve as concrete examples to ground the rest of the discussion. I will then describe the expressive AI practice by first situating it with respect to the GOFAl/interactionist AI debate, then by describing the central organizing metaphors of authorial and interpretive affordance, and finally by providing a preliminary set of desiderata for expressive AI practice.

1. Adam, A. (1998). Artificial knowing: Gender and the thinking machine. London: Routledge.

2. Agre, P. (1997). Computation and human experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3. Bates, J. (1992). Virtual reality, art, and entertainment. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1 (1), 133-138.

4. Boehlen, M., & Mateas, M. (1998). Office plant #1: Intimate space and contemplative entertainment. Leonardo, 31 (s), 345-348.

5. Brooks, R. (1991). Intelligence without reason. A.I. Memo 1293, Artificial Intelligence Lab., MIT.

6. Brooks, R. (1990). Elephants don’t play chess. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 6, 3-15.

7. Carbonell, J. (1979). Subjective understanding: Computer models of belief systems. Doctoral dissertation, Computer Science Department, Yale University, New Haven.

8. Special Issue on Situated Cognition. (1993). Cognitive Science 17.

9. Domike, S., Mateas, M., & Vanouse, P. The recombinant history apparatus presents: Terminal time. Forthcoming in book from the Center for Twentieth Century Studies.

10. Dreyfus, H. (1972). What computers still can’t do: A critique of artificial reason. Cambridge: MIT Press.

11. Gibson, J. (1979). The ecological approach to human perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

12. Gibson, J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. E. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, acting, and knowing. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum Associates.

13. Kosko, B. (1997). Fuzzy engineering (pp. 499-525). New York: Simon & Schuster.

14. Loyall, A. B. & Bates, J. (1991). Hap: A reactive, adaptive architecture for agents. Technical Report CMU-CS-91-147, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.

15. Mateas, M., Vanouse, P., Domike S. (1999). Terminal time: An ideologically-biased history machine. AISB Quarterly, Special Issue on Creativity in the Arts and Sciences, 102, 36-43.

16. Mateas, M. (1999). Not your grandmother’s game: AI-based art and entertainment. Working notes of the AI and Computer Games Symposium, AAAI Spring Symposium Series. Menlo Park, California. AAAI Press, 1999.

17. Mateas, M. (1997). Computational subjectivity in virtual world avatars. Working notes of the Socially Intelligent Agents Symposium, AAAI Fall Symposium Series. Menlo Park, California. AAAI Press., 1997.

18. Mateas, M. (1997). An Oz-centric review of interactive drama and believable agents. Technical report CMU-CS-97-156. Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University.

19. Mitchell, T. (1997). Machine learning (p. 180). New York: McGraw-Hill.

20. Neal Reilly, W. S. (1996). Believable social and emotional agents. Doctoral dissertation, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

21. Norman, D. (1998). The design of everyday things. New York: Doubleday.

22. Sengers, P. (1998). Anti-boxology: Agent design in cultural context. Doctoral dissertation, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

23. Stern, A., Frank, A., Resner, B. (1998). Virtual petz: A hybrid approach to creating autonomous, lifelike dogz and catz. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 334-335. Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press.

24. Varela, F., Thompson, E., Rosch, E. (1999). The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience (7th ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press. Electronic

[View PDF] artificial intelligence and technology
Extraordinary Accident: an immersive metaphor of Hong Kong Tomás Laurenzo, Alejandro Rodríguez, and Tatjana Kudinova SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Paper

This paper presents Extraordinary Accident, an immersive experience exploring how different levels of abstraction can coexist and collaborate in a representation and recreation of urban space. Using Hong Kong as both inspiration and data source, the work attempts to liberate virtual reality compositions from their metaphorical ballast –that is, their recreational onus– and instead, with a temporal amalgamation of poetic representation at different scales, contribute to an alternative, potentially more intimate, understanding of the urban experience.

Feedback to Immersion Timothy Druckrey SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Machine Culture to Neuromachines/Modernity to Postmodernity Essay

Cybernetics speculates about the coupling of machine and person. Since Norbert Wiener’s seminal Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine (1948), the trajectory of technology development has been one of an increasing possibility of achieving that interface. In the past decade, the possibility of defining a relationship not simply between but within technology has become plausible. Yet the commercialization of cybernetics comes neither as a technical panacea nor without deep ethical concerns. As machines mutate into biology, the philosophical and political values of technology are challenged to confront more than conceptualized situations but rather to theorize the materiality of programmed or enhanced being. At the same time, the development of”realities” that are characterized as immersive or virtual are beginning to surround experience. The penetration of technology within the body and the socialization of simulated realities is more than a signifier of technological progress-it marks a transformation of knowledge, of biology, and of the cultural order in which knowledge is linked with ideology, biology with identity in terms of a technological imperative not necessarily connected with necessity. The issues raised by this potential for the narrowing of the boundary between technology and experience are vast. In many ways the development of several parallel technologies has reached a crucial point.

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Feminist Transgressions? Object and Process in Transgenic/Genetic Works by Women Mary Flanagan SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery Paper

Interest in new technologies has fostered a growing interdisciplinary exploration between artists, scientists, social scientists, and designers. Particular types of artwork have held attraction for the artist-scientist in the 20th and 21st centuries: artificial life, evolutionary art, and genetic art have been created by those with an interest in science and organic structures. Concerns inherent to these contemporary interests are centuries old; 1 the use of novel technologies to mimic or create life can be traced to the Ancient Greeks, Jewish, Chinese, and Egyptian cultures, in which stories of famous pneumatic automata and golem originated.

GIBBS, W. 2001. Art as a Form of Life. Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/2001/0401issue/0401 profile. html

GROSZ, E. ed. 2000. Becomings: Explorations in Time, Memory and Futures. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

HOFMANN, I., WITTKOPP, G., and WILSON, D. 1999. Weird Science: A Conflation of Art and Science. Bloomfield Hills, Mich: Cranbrook Art Museum.

JEREMIJENKO, N. OneTree. http ://www. cat. nyu .ed u/nata I ie/One Tree/One TreeDescri pt ion. html

LEVY, E.K. 1996. Contemporary Art and the Genetic Code: New Models and Methods of Representation. Art Journal 55: 1, 20-25.

MAHONEY, R. 2000. Christine Borland. Artnet Magazine.

MESKIMMON, M. 2000. Historiography/Feminisms/Strategies. n.Paradoxa 12.

PENNY, S. 1995. Why Do We Want Our Machines to Be Alive? Scientific American. http://www.art.cfa.cmu.edu/penny/texts/sci_ am_ Golem. html

RAAF, S. Breath Cultures. http://www.raaf.org/

RAPOPORT, S. 1998. The Transgenic Bagel: The Transformation of Computer-Based Artwork. Leonardo 31:4, 271-275.

SEABROOK, J. 1990. Biotech Bondage. New Statesman, 17-19.

SHIVA, V. A Third World Perspective on Biotechnology. http://www.psrast.org/vashbiot.htm

STEIN, L. 2001. Smile Tomato. Paradise Now exhibition. http://www.geneart.org/stei n. htm

TOMA, J., AKHAVAN, M., FERNANDES, K., BARNABE-HEIDER, F., SADIKOT, A., KAPLAN, D. R., & MILLER, F. 2001. Isolation of Multipotent Adult Stem Cells from the Dermis of Mammalian Skin. Nature Cell Biology 3:9, 778-784.

WRIGHT, R. 1994. Feminists, Meet Mr. Darwin: The Evolutionary Psychology of the Female Mind. The New Republic 211: 22, 34-42.

YOUNGS, A. 2000. The Fine Art of Creating Life. Leonardo 33:5, 377- 380.

ZELEVANSKY, L. 1994. Sense and Sensibility: Woman Artists and Minimalism in the Nineties. Exhibition catalogue. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

[View PDF] artificial life and technology
Film Theory for the Digital World: Connecting the Masters to the New Digital Cinema John Andrew Berton Jr. SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema Paper

This article examines the role that theories of photographic cinema play in the criticism of digital cinema. The theories of Georges Melies, Vachel Lindsay, Lev Kuleshov, Andre Bazin and Rudolf Arnheim-critics, theoreticians and filmmakers, the key-stones of this work-have proven pertinent to the advancing technology of other cinematic forms. Their ideas have applicability to specific aspects of digital cinema, including the manipulation of illusory space, discrete and explicit control of cinematic elements, the transformation of world spaces into screen space and the role of realistic imagery in determining the content of a cinematic work. Parallels can be drawn between the ideas of these theorists, most of whom wrote during the infancy of photographic cinema, on the developing state of film and that of current digital cinema.

  1. Dale Peterson, Genesis II: Creation and Recreation with Computers (Reston, VA: Reston Publishing, 1983) pp. 43 60.
  2. Vachel Lindsay, The Art of the Moving Picture
    (Norwood, MA: Norwood Press, 1922) p. 114.
  3. Lindsay [2] p. 116.
  4. Lindsay [2] pp. 118-119.
  5. Lindsay [2] p. 119.
  6. Lindsay [2] p. 133.
  7. Lindsay [2] p. 133.
  8. Lewis Jacobs, ed., The Emergence of Film Art (New York: Hopkinson and Blake, 1969) p. 10.
  9. Jacobs [8] p. 19.
  10. Lev Kuleshov, Kuleshov on Film (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974) p. 58.
  11. Kuleshov [10] p. 63.
  12. Kuleshov [10] p. 193.
  13. Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1960).
  14. André Bazin, What is Cinema?, 2 vols. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971).
  15. Rudolf Arnheim, Film as Art (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957) p. 9.
  16. Arnheim [15] p. 35.
  17. Arnheim [15] pp. 59-60.
  18. Arnheim [ 15] p. 5.
[View PDF]
Flashimation: The Context and Culture of Web Animation Dan L. Baldwin, Michael S. Daubs, and John B. Ludwick SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

On October 15, 1997, the first-ever cartoon produced solely for the web made its premiere [Sullivan 1997]. Spumco, a Hollywood-based animation house formed by “Ren & Stimpy” creator John Kricfalusi, commonly known as John K., produced the first installment of The Goddamn George Liquor Program after experimentation with Marcomedia’s popular animation and interface-development program, Flash [Tanner 2001]. Although only eight one-minute episodes of the program were produced, the web cartoon launched a new style of animation, which has since earned an unofficial nickname: “Flashimation.” The purpose of this paper is to explore the origins and effects of this type of animation; examine the forces that turned animators towards the web, its visual style, and the meanings with which it is associated; and the effect Flashimation has had on modern animation and the current animation community. Several threads of thought explain the evolution and culturalization of the new-media phenomenon known as Flashimation. Television animation, increasing access to and preference for the internet, the technological restrictions of this new medium, and the availability of animation software itself have coalesced to produce a major change in the cultural reconceptualization and consumption of modern animation. Collectively, they explain a complex and layered transition from “kid-vid” cartoons to short and crude forms of sophomorically humorous animation produced specifically for an adult audience.

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Forces in Equilibrium Wei-Chun Chen, Su-Chu Hsu, and Yu-Hsiung Huang SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Music makes Visual Art / Visual Art makes Music Sketch / Art Talk

Forces in Equilibrium explores how equilibrium is formed out of chaos. The installation is comprised of two components. In the first component, a sensor is mounted under the top of a pedestal. When magnets are moved on the pedestal, images and sound on a nearby display become wild and unstable, as if the magnet has unusual powers. The second component is a seesaw controlled by a servomotor. When laser light lands on the seesaw, it tilts accordingly, as if the light has weight. The art works show both magnetic force and laser light as not merely ethereal but as entities capable of affecting images, sounds and movements.

Fractals and an Art for the Sake of Science Benoit B. Mandelbrot SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

A new form of art redefines the boundary between ‘invention’ and ‘discovery’, as understood in the sciences, and ‘creativity’, as understood in the plastic arts. Can pure geometry be perceived by the ‘man in the street’ as beautiful? To be more specific, can a shape that is defined by a simple equation or a simple rule of construction be perceived by people other than geometers as having aesthetic value – namely, as being at least surprisingly decorative – or perhaps even as being a work of art? When the geometric shape is a fractal, the answer is yes. Even when fractals are taken ‘raw’, they are attractive. They lend themselves to ‘painting by numbers’ that is surprisngly effective, even in the hands of the rank amateur. And the true artist’s sensibility finds them a novel and attractive support.

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From Artificial Life to Augmented Reality: "It's not about technology, it's about what technology is about" Rodney Berry SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery Essay

This paper examines the influence of two areas of technological research upon my art practice. For me, technologies provide inspiration in a variety of ways. It can begin with a simple instinct on first contact with a technological object, a system, or a scientific idea. Often, an extended period of play or exploration with the technology needs to take place before the artistic possibilities reveal themselves. The two main areas of technological focus in this paper are Artificial Life and Augmented Reality, with particular attention to the development of ideas and philosophical concerns underlying the art that I make. Examples of completed works and works in progress will be shown. It is my intention in doing this to examine some aspects of the artist’s role in unraveling the meanings nesting within technological and scientific endeavors.

PEAT, F. D. AND BRIGGS, J. 1989. Turbulent Mirror, An Illustrated Guide to Chaos Theory and the Science of Wholeness. New York: Harper & Row, Prologue p i.

COOLEY, C. H. 1902. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner’s, 179- 185. (Online at: wizard.ucr.edu/-bkaplan/ soc/lib/cool I kgl. html)

CAGE, J. 1990. 1-V John Cage. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1.

DAWKINS, R. 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: Penguin, 136.

KATO, H., AND BILLINGHURST, M. 1999. Marker Tracking and HMD Calibration for a Video-based Augmented Reality Conferencing System. Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Augmented Reality, 85-94.

[View PDF] artificial life and augmented realities
From This Side of Space to the Other Side of the Signal Benjamin Rosenthal SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

“from this side of space to the other side of the signal” utilizes footage produced on unique analog equipment from the early history of
video during a residency at Signal Culture (a contemporary version of the original Experimental Television Center in Owego, NY), and emerges from a nod to Michael Snow’s iconic structural film La Région Centrale. Virtual landscapes pumped through the analog system become caught amidst sets of “meaningless” signs/barriers and violent signals. Computer generated bodies and body parts glistening with video material generated via this system perform actions that queer the line between digital, physical and analog, homoeroticism and violence––entangled in a fragmented high-modernist grid. A voice from the other side of the signal attempts to lure the viewer into some act of connection, of crossing over, only to be perpetually interrupted by barriers of interference. “from this side of space to the other side of the signal” is a two-channel piece that engages both the history of early video tools and contemporary forms of 2D and 3D animation. Using these analog tools as a way of addressing the historicity of the body, and as a way of defining the space of bodies (via their moving textures) in novel as a way of engaging our contemporary hybrid experience. Queering the distinctions between subject, object, transmission, physicality and the ephemeral larger questions about the nature of our technocultural existence rise to the surface.

From Wunderkammern to Kinect – The Creation of Shadow Worlds Chara Lewis, Kristin Mojsiewicz, and Anneké Pettican SIGGRAPH 2012: In Search of the Miraculous Paper

This paper focuses on two projects, Still Life No. 1 and Shadow Worlds | Writers’ Rooms [Brontë Parsonage], to reveal the creative approaches the authors take to site, technology, and the self in their production of shadow worlds as sites of wonder. Informed by the uncanny (re-animation and the double) and an interest in the limen (thresholds in the real and virtual realms), the projects explore white light and infrared digital 3D scanning technologies as tools for capture and transformation. The authors will discuss how they suture the past with the present and ways that light slips secretly between us, revealing other realms.

1. Brass Art, www.brassart.org.uk.
2. B.M. Stafford, Devices of Wonder (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2001) 2.
3. The Whitworth Gallery (www.whitworth.manchester.ac.uk/) and Manchester Museum (www.museum.
manchester.ac.uk/) are both part of Manchester University. The commission by The Whitworth for the
international group exhibition Dark Matters: Shadow Technology Art (www.whitworth.manchester.ac.uk/
whatson/exhibition/ darkmatters) gave Brass Art a unique opportunity to gain access to the museum stores
and the expertise of individual curators. Still Life No. 1 was supported by the Association of Art Historians,
the University of Huddersfield, Ogle Models and Prototypes Ltd, and Huntsmen. darkmattersart.com
4. M. Kingwell, “Husserl’s Sense of Wonder,” The Philosophical Forum Vol. 31, Issue 1, 85 (2000).
5. C. Olalquiaga, “Object Lesson / Transitional Object,” Cabinet Issue 20, Ruins (2005/06).
6. Digital Doubles, www.digitaldoubles.org.
7. Scanning at Manchester Metropolitan University, School of Engineering, United Kingdom. 3D body
scanning supported by Wicks and Wilson Ltd., United Kingdom.
8. 3D data were repaired at Liverpool National Museum’s Conservation Technologies Department and
printed at Ogle Models Ltd., United Kingdom, with sponsorship from Huntsmen.
9. The circular table for Still Life No. 1 with motorized revolving light was designed by theater engineer Andy
Plant. This enabled Brass Art to move away from the garden model railway sets, which had facilitated linear
light locomotion in previous installations (Moments of Death and Revival) and return the audience’s focus
to the shadow play.
10. S. Greenblatt, “Resonance and Wonder,” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Vol. 43, No.
4, 11–34 (January 1990).
11. The Brontë Parsonage was the family home from 1820 to 1861. Charlotte’s novel Jane Eyre (1847), Emily’s
Wuthering Heights (1847), and Anne’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848) were written in this house. The
Brontës, who published under the pseudonyms of Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, were acknowledged at the
time for their directness and powerful emotional energy, qualities which were sometimes interpreted by the
critics as “coarse” and “brutal.” www.bronte.info/
12. In 2009, we researched the potential of using Lidar scanning for a commission at the Lyric Theatre,
Hammersmith, London, to capture both the outside of the building during its architectural transformation
and performances that took place within its interior. Our aim had been to composite these viewpoints and
to focus on the negative spaces within the process – in other words, focus on what was most often unseen.
A colleague, Spencer Roberts, working with the Kinect, was interested in how we envisaged using the
technology to explore the shadows created in the captured data, and a collaboration was formed.
13. V.I. Stoichita, A Short History of the Shadow (London: Reaktion Books, 1997) 171.
14. V.I. Stoichita, A Short History of the Shadow (London: Reaktion Books, 1997) 145.
15. V.I. Stoichita, A Short History of the Shadow (London: Reaktion Books, 1997) 185.
16. Simon Pantling, www.pantlingstudio.com/.
17. Spencer Roberts, author of custom-built software for Kinect, spencerroberts.artsident.org/.
18. R. Descartes, Discourse on Method and the Meditations (Harmondsworth, United Kingdom: Penguin
Classics, 1968) 110.

kinect, shadow worlds, and 3D scanning
Fun, Love, and Happiness — or The Aesthetics of Play and Empathy in Avatar Worlds Tobey Crockett SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery Essay

I was asked recently why I would be interested in theorizing on play outside of the context of games and persistent environments. The answer has to do with the processes of creativity, self expression, and authorship that arise when we consider interactivity in virtual worlds. Artmaking as play, and empathy as a foundation of collective authorship, are the central themes of this talk. But is that art? If one allows that art is an outgrowth of a set of techniques, tools, conventions, visual histories, aesthetic vocabularies, and above all an urge of creative self-expression then we would have to say yes. If, additionally, we posit that the digital medium may, perhaps, bring with it a special quality that we have not yet pinned down, despite various efforts to do so, then I would like to suggest that that special digital quality is reflected precisely in aesthetics of play, empathy, and a sense of collective identity and multiplicity of authorship.

[View PDF] game, identity, and virtual environment
Genderbender, Smartstall, The Automatic Confession Machine Gregory P. Garvey SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Bending: Corn, Face, and Gender for Social Provocation Sketch / Art Talk

This presentation reviews three works: Genderbender, Smart Stall (exhibited in The Bridge: SIGGRAPH 96 Art Show), and The Automatic Confession Machine (exhibited in Machine Culture, SIGGRAPH 93).

[View PDF] installation, presentation, review, and technology
Generating Abstract Paintings in Kandinsky Style Kang Zhang and Jinhui Yu SIGGRAPH Asia 2013: Art Gallery Paper

This paper presents a recent project on automatic generation of Kandinsky style of abstract paintings using the programming language Processing. It first offers an analysis of Kandinsky’s paintings based on his art theories and the author’s own understanding and observation. The generation process is described in details and sample generated images styled on four of Kandinsky’s paintings are also demonstrated and discussed. Our approach is highly scalable, limited only by the memory space set in Processing. Using random generation, every styled image generated can be unique. A selection of the images generated in the required resolution is also submitted and 70 images are made into a video companion.

[1] L. Ammeraal and K. Zhang, Computer Graphics for Java Programmers, Second Edition, John-Wiley & Sons, 2007.

[2] M.F. Barnsley, Fractals Everywhere, Morgan Kaufmann, 1993.

[3] V.E. Barnett and P.H. Barnett, The Originality of Kandinsky’s Compositions, The Visual Computer, Vo.5, No.4, July, 1989, 203-213.

[4] U. Becks-Malorny, Wassily Kandinsky – The Journey to Abstraction, Benedikt Taschen, 1994.

[5] M. Fogleman, Procedurally Generating Images in the Style of Piet Mondrian, http://fogleman.tumblr.com/post/11959143268/procedurally
generating-images-in-the-style-of-piet, 2011.

[6] P. Haeberli, Paint by Numbers: Abstract Image Representations, SIGGRAPH’90, Dallas, 6-10 August 1990.

[7] A. Ione, Kandinsky and Klee: Chromatic Chords, Polyphonic Painting and Synesthesia, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol.11, No. 3-4, 2004, 148-58.

[8] W. Kandinsky, Composición VIII. 1923. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

[9] W. Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, (originally published in 1914) translated with an introduction by M.T.H. Sadler, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1977.

[10] W. Kandinsky, Point and Line to Plane, (originally published in 1926) translated by H. Dearstyne and H. Rebay, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1979.

[11] J.L. Kirsch and R.A. Kirsch, The Anatomy of Painting Style: Description with Computer Rules, Leonardo, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1988, 437-444.

[12] A.M. Noll, Human or Machine: A Subjective Comparison of Piet Mondrian’s ‘Composition with Lines’ and a Computer– Generated Picture, The Psychological Record, Vol. 16. No. 1, January 1966, 1-10.

[13] C.B. Price, From Kandinsky to Java (The Use of 20th Century Abstract Art in Learning Programming), ITALICS, Vo.6, No.4, October 2007, 35-50.

[14] C. Reas and B. Fry, Processing: A Programming Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists, 2007, The MIT Press.

[15] S.S. Snibbe and G. Levin, Interactive Dynamic Abstraction, Proc.1st Int. Symp. on Non-photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR’00), Annecy France, 2000, 21-29.

[16] R.P. Taylor, Order in Pollock’s Chaos, Scientific American, December 2002, 116-121.

[17] R.P. Taylor, A.P. Micolich, and D. Jones, The Construction of Pollock’s Fractal Drip Paintings, Leonardo Vol. 35, 2002, 203.

[18] R.P. Taylor, Pollock, Mondrian and Nature: Recent Scientific Investigation, Chaos and Complexity Letters 1, 2004, 29.

[19] G.R. Thompson, The Art of Authorial Presence: Hawthorne’s Provincial Tales, Duke University Press, 1993, p.21.

[20] K. Zhang, From Abstract Painting to Information Visualization, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, May/June 2007, 12-16.

[21] K. Zhang, S. Harrell, and X. Ji, Computational Aesthetics – On Complexity of Computer-Generated Paintings, Leonardo Journal, MIT Press, June 2012, Vol. 45, No. 3 , 2012, 243-248.

[22] M. Zhao and S-C. Zhu, Sisley the Abstract Painter, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Non- Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR’2010), Annecy, France, 2010, 99-107.

[View PDF]
Generative and Genetic Art William Latham, Karl Sims, Yoichiro Kawaguchi, and Andy Lomas SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Panel / Roundtable

This panel brings together leading experts of generative and genetic art from the past 25 years, all of whose work has been featured at the annual SIGGRAPH conferences during this period. The panelists examine a range of topics including: “chance and creativity,” “can art be an equation?” “the procedural and generative software toolbox,” “artist as god,” “the creative peaks and troughs of traveling through multidimensional parameter space,” and “genetic art into genetic engineering?” With the growth in multicore computer systems (including games consoles) that are well suited for procedural and generative processes, the panel explores avenues for these genres in 2006 and beyond.

Getting Women Wired: New Connections in Art and Technology* Mary Leigh Morbey SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Essay

Does computer science in its theory and practice embody discrimination nation against women, and if so, how does embedded discrimination work itself out in applications to the arts? This essay, guided by this introductory question, will connect concerns of discrimination against women in the field of computer science with issues that arise in the development of theory and application in the emerging electronic computer based arts. Bias against women in computing, I will suggest, occurs in the epistemology or knowledge construction of modern science, works itself out in knowledge construction of modern science, works itself out in knowledge distribution and socialization processes, alienates women, ethnic groups, and class groupings, limits access, and skews applications in the arts.

[View PDF] computer art and computer science
Glowing Pathfinder Bugs: A Natural Haptic 3D Interface for Interacting Intuitively with Virtual Environments Anthony Rowe and Liam Birtles SIGGRAPH 2010: TouchPoint: Haptic Exchange Between Digits Paper

Glowing Pathfinder Bugs is an interactive art project primarily aimed at children and created by the digital arts group Squidsoup. It uses projection to visualize virtual bugs on a real sandpit. The bugs are aware of their surroundings and respond to its form in their vicinity. By altering the topography of the sand, participants affect the bugs’ environment in real time, facilitating direct communication between them and computer-generated creatures.

This highly malleable and tactile physical environment lets us define and carve out the landscape in which the creatures exist in real time. Thus, virtual creatures and real people coexist and communicate through a shared tactile environment. Participants can use natural modes of play, kinesthetic intelligence, and their sense of tactility to collaboratively interact with creatures inhabiting a hybrid parallel world.

This paper describes the project and analyzes how children in particular respond to the experience; it looks at the types of physical formations that tend to be built and notes how children instinctively anthropomorphize the bugs, treating projected imagery as living creatures – though with a ludic twist.

I. Squidsoup, www.squidsoup.org.

2. E. Ackerman, “Playthings That Do Things: A Young Kid’s ‘Incredibles’!,” Proceedings of JDC 2005, Boulder, Colorado, 1-8 (2005).

3. H. Ishii and B. Ullmer, “Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces Between People, Bits and Atoms,” Proceedings of the SIG CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 234-241 (1996).

4. E. Lupton, “Skin: New Design Organics,” Skin: Surface, Substance and Design (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002).

5. Freq2, www.squidsoup.org/freq2.

6. Kinesthetic Intelligence, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_mulciple_intelligences.

7. Sandscape, tangible.media.mic.edu/projects/sandscape/.

8. A. Parkes, V. LeClerc, H. Ishii, “Glume: Exploring Materiality in a Soft Augmented Modular Modeling System,” Extended Abstracts of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, 12n-1216 (2006).

9. H. Ishii, et al., “Sandscape: Bringing Clay and Sand into Digital Design – Continuous Tangible User Interfaces,” BT Technology journal, Vol. 22, No. 4, 287-299 (2004).

IO. J. Seevinck and E. Edmonds, “Emergence and the Art System ‘Plus Minus Now,”‘ Design Studies, Vol. 29, No. 6, 541-555 (2008).

II. D. Harrison, et al., “Shift-Life: Experiencing the Big Idea,” Proceedings of the Digital Arts and Culture Conference, www.escholarship.org/uc/item/9q6716gd?display=all (2009).

12. Point Grey Bumblebee, www.ptgrey.com/products/bumblebee2/index.asp.

13. J. Hillman, Re-visioning Psychology (New York: Harper and Row, 1976) p. 16.

14. Squidsoup, Glowing Pathfinder Bugs, www.squidsoup.org/bugs.

Gradus: Revealing the Shape of the English Language Matt Grenby SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Saying: Words for Electronic Discourse Sketch / Art Talk

Is there a way to make a meaningful shape from a collection of the indi­vidual words of the English language? What would that shape look like? Why would this approach be preferable to a traditional representation — a printed dictionary, for example? These were among the questions we asked when we set out to visualize the English language as a single entity.

[View PDF] visualization and interface
gravityZERO, an installation work for virtual environment Suguru Goto SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Paper

This paper reports the exposition of an artistic installation, gravityZERO, and its ongoing technical development. It consists of virtual sound, VR and robotic technologies in order to simulate the state of zero gravity. Audience members can experience a floating sensation within this virtual environment.

GreenLite Dartmouth: Unplug or the Polar Bear Gets It Evan Tice SIGGRAPH 2009: Information Aesthetics Showcase Information Aesthetics: Designing Interactions Panel / Roundtable

GreenLite Dartmouth visualizes complex, real-time energy data using interactive animations to create an emotional relationship between energy use and its e ects. When electricity use is low, for example, a polar bear is happy and playful. As more energy is used, the bear becomes distressed, and his well-being is endangered.

Hand Held Tools for Navigating Information David Small SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Tooling: Implements for Creativity Sketch / Art Talk

If computers are tools for manipulating information, they have been notoriously poor at using the hands of the people who use them. By engaging the hands of the user, it is possible to get a literal handle on complex visualizations of information. In this project, the goal is to design a more practical, productive, and fluid kind of interface.

[View PDF] interface and visualization
HCI In Performance Arts And The Case Of Illimitable Space System's Multimodal Interaction And Visualization Miao Song, Serguei Mokhov, Peter Grogono, and Sudhir P. Murdur SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

The paper describes the relevant in performance arts and HCI and showcases the Illimitable Space System–a configurable multimodal interactive system prototype for interactive documentaries, dance performance, and musical visualizations using gestures (Kinect) and speech processing for various modes of interaction.

Here and Now: Indigenous Canadian Perspectives and New Media in Works by Ruben Komangapik, Kent Monkman and Adrian Duke Brittany Myburgh SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives Art Papers Session #2 Paper

Examining the use of new media in works by Ruben Komangapik, Kent Monkman and the Wikiup Indigenous Knowledge Network reveals the diverse ways in which technologies are used to disrupt linear time and Western visions of history. New media works challenge those misleading stories that have been told about Canada’s indigenous peoples and assert indigenous presence in both the digital and physical landscape. These artists employ QR codes, video and augmented reality to push artistic boundaries and create representations of the past and present.

  1. Candice Hopkins, “Making ings Our Own: e Indigenous Aesthetic in Digital Storytelling,” Leonardo 39, No. 4, 342 (2006).
  2. Steven Loft and Kerry Swanson, ed., Coded Territories (Calgary: Univ. of Calgary Press, 2014) p. 177.
  3. Judith Leggatt, “Material Connections in Skawennati’s Digital Worlds,” Canadian Literature No. 231, 216 (2016).
  4. Kristin Dowell, Sovereign Screens: Aboriginal Media on the Canadian West Coast (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press,2013) p. 70.
  5. Dowell [4] p. 19.
  6. Sisters and Brothers can be viewed at: <www.nfb.ca/ lm/sisters_brothers/>.
  7. Heather Igloriorte, “Inuit Artistic Expression as Cultural Resilience,” Inuit Art Quarterly 25, No. 1, 6 (2010).
  8. Julie Nagam and Kerry Swanson, “Decolonial Interventions in Performance and New Media Art: In Conversationwith Cheryl L’Hirondelle and Kent Monkman,” Canadian eatre Review 159, No. 159, 36 (2014).
  9. Leggatt [3] p. 58.
  10. Wikiup can be accessed via: <www.wikiup.org>.
  11. Horea Avram, “Self-Re exivity as Self-Documentation: Some oughts on Augmented Reality and RelationalArchitecture,” in Documentation and Conservation of Media Arts Heritage (2006) p. 8.
  12. Important precedents for the work discussed include various AR history applications and artworks such asJohn Craig Freeman’s Border Memorial, which allow viewers to activate invisible layers of landscapes in real time and encounter avatars at their viewing location: <https://bordermemorial.wordpress.com/border-memorial -frontera-de-los-muertos/>.
  13. Carleigh Baker, “New Media Review: A Tradition of Evolution: e Vancouver Indigenous Media Arts Festival,”BC Studies No. 195, 153 (2017).
  14. For a discussion of the risks and bene ts involved in employing augmented reality to interpret history and cultural information see also: Shanlon Gilbert, “Explode the Museum: Echoes of the Explosion and the ‘Wild West’ of Interpretation,” iJournal 2, No. 3, 8 (2017).
Hive Sölen Kiratli and Akshay Cadambi SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

With HIVE, we intended to explore the idea of a sonic intelligence: learning, experiencing, reacting, and finally, “thinking” in sound. Can we model such a system? A system with a body whose morphology is based on picking up and sending sound signals, a system who can learn from its environment and evolve in its response, a pseudo ‘being’ that traces our sonic foot-print and projects our sonic reflection. Created via fusing aspects of sculptural form, spatial sound, interactive methods, and machine learning, HIVE is an art installation that explores the relationship between sound, space, body, and communication.

Holojam in Wonderland: Immersive Mixed Reality Theater David Gochfeld, Corrine Brenner, Kris Layng, Sebastian Herscher, Connor Defanti, Marta Olko, David Shinn, Stephanie Riggs, and Clara Fernández-Vara SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives Paper

Holojam in Wonderland is a prototype of a new type of performance activity, “Immersive Mixed Reality Theater” (IMRT). With unique and novel properties possessed by neither cinema nor traditional theater, IMRT promises exciting new expressive possibilities for multi-user, participatory, immersive digital narratives. The authors describe the piece, the technology used to create it and some of the key aesthetic choices and takeaways.

  1. P. Milgram and F. Kishino, “A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays,” IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D, No. 12, 1321 (1994).
  2. Microsoft. “What is Mixed Reality?” Windows Development Center (March 2018): <https://docs.microsoft.com /en-us/windows/mixed-reality/mixed_reality> (retrieved 5 April 2018).
  3. J. Machon, Immersive eatres: Intimacy and Immediacy in Contemporary Performance (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).
  4. K. Perlin, “Future Reality: How Emerging Technologies Will Change Language Itself,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 36, No. 3, 84–89 (2016).
  5. J.H. Murray, Hamlet on the Holodeck: e Future of Narrative in Cyberspace (New York: Free Press, 1997).
  6. P. Heidicker, E. Langbehn and F. Steinicke, “In uence of Avatar Appearance on Presence in Social VR,” in 2017IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (2017) pp. 233–234.
Homes Tamas Waliczky, Anna Szepesi, and Jane Prophet SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Narratives and Culture Sketch / Art Talk

Homes presents the interior spaces where people from the fishing village of Tai O live. The installation includes the everyday objects with which they surround themselves. Two LCD monitors show virtual interiors of two village houses. Visitors to the installation can wander these virtual interior spaces by using trackballs attached to each screen. A large photo showing the street where the houses are located is on a facing wall.

Hybrid Animation production and the Dream of Flight. Simon Rippingale, Andrew Johnston, and Andrew Bluff SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Paper

Through a detailed account of a recent practice-based research project – a short animation project called Jasper, this paper explores how a hybrid analogue/digital production approach can generate a unique and engaging visual style – one that sits between the tangible, handcrafted feel of miniatures and the cleanness, fluidity and flexibility of computer-generated animation. The author examines the new creative possibilities and challenges that a hybrid animation production approach presents and also outlines various technical platforms encountered during the production of Jasper, including motion-controlled camera systems, 3D printing, game engines, point cloud scans and augmented reality.

Hybrid Basketry: Interweaving Digital Practice Within Contemporary Craft Amit Zoran SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Hybrid Media, Contemporary Practice Paper

Contemporary 3D printing and traditional craft rarely meet in the same creation. They tend to live in different worlds. In this paper, the author argues for merging these two distinct traditions. To that end, he developed hybrid basketry, a medium where 3D-printed structures are shaped to allow the growth and development of hand-woven patterns. While the 3D-printed plastic elements contribute the aesthetics of the digital curvatures and manifolds, the hand-woven reed, jute, and canvas fibers infuse the baskets with a unique organic appeal. The author discusses his motivation, describes the making process, and presents four hybrid baskets, integrating a deeper discussion on the place of craft and tradition within our contemporary approach to design and fabrication.

  1. Gershenfeld, Neil, FAB: e Coming Revolution on Your Desktop—From Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication (New York: Basic Books, 2007) 3–27.
  2. Zoran, Amit and Leah Buechley, “Hybrid reAssemblage: An Exploration of Craft, Digital Fabrication and Artifact Uniqueness,” Leonardo, Vol. 46, No. 1, 4–10 (2013).
  3. Ingold, Tim, “On Weaving a Basket,” e Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill (London: Routledge, 2011) 339–348.
  4. Koenig, Hazel, Spencer Moseley and Pauline Johnson, Crafts Design (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1965) 124–209.
  5. Bar-Yosef, Ofer, et al., “Were Bamboo Tools Made in Prehistoric Southeast Asia? An Experimental View from South China,” Quaternary International, doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.03.026 (2011).
  6. Ranjan, M.P., Nilam Iyer, and Ghanshyam Pandya, Bamboo and Cane Crafts of Northeast India (India: DC Handicrafts, 1986).
  7. Mallow, Judy, Pine Needle Basketry: From Forest Floor to Finished Project (Asheville, NC: Lark Crafts, 2010).
  8. Sudduth, Billie Ruth, Baskets: A Book for Makers and Collectors (Gloucester, MA: Hand Books Press, 1999).
  9. Muslimin, Rizal, “Learning from Weaving for Digital Fabrication in Architecture,” Leonardo, Vol. 43, No. 4, 340–349 (2010).
  10. McQuaid, Matilda, Extreme Textiles: Designing for High Performance (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005).
  11. Khabazi, Zubin, “Generative Algorithms—Concepts and Experiments: Weaving” (2010), <www.morphgenesism.com>, accessed 22 November, 2012.
  12. Pye, David, “ e Nature and Art of Workmanship,” e Craft Reader, ed. Glenn Adamson (New York: Berg, 2010) 341–353.
3D Printing, hybrid basketry, and craft
Hybrid Embroidery: Exploring Interactive Fabrication in Hand Crafts Yi-Chin Lee and Daniel Cardoso Llach SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Crafts, Waves, Robots, and Pixels Paper

“Hybrid Embroidery” is a framework for interactive fabrication that leverages the potential of computation to broaden the possibilities of the craft of embroidery. “Hybrid Embroidery” is set out to offer an example of how computational methods may enrich craft and refining technical interactions to support expressiveness and open-ended practice.

Hypermedia, Eternal Life, and the Impermanence Agent Noah Wardrip-Fruin SIGGRAPH 1999: technOasis Essay

We look to media as memory, and a place to memorialize, when we have lost.

Hypermedia pioneers envisioned the ultimate media within the ultimate archive, with each element in continual (versioned) flux and constant new additions – dynamism without loss.

Instead we have the Web, where “Not Found” is a daily message. Projects such as the Internet Archive and Afterlife dream of fixing this uncomfortable impermanence. Marketers, instead, promise agents that will make the Web comfortable through filtering (hiding the impermanence and overwhelming profusion that its dynamism engenders).

The Impermanence Agent operates differently. It begins by telling my stories – my grandmother’s stories – and as users browse, the images and texts they pull from the Web are interwoven with her stories. In time, the original stories are lost. New stories, collaboratively created, have taken their place.

[View PDF] hypermedia and memory
I Touch You And You Touch Me Jeff Thompson SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

We interact with our computers constantly, touching them more than we touch any person in our lives, and grooming them inside and out. For a month, I recorded all interactions with my phone and fed them into a machine learning system, which then output new, learned gestures. These “hallucinated” movements are awkward yet eerily accurate swipes, taps, and typing based on what my computer has learned from my interactions with it. Presented as an interactive sculpture, the gestures are enacted by a small robotic arm on the visitor’s palm as they sit at a low, altar-like table. Notions of “you,” “me,” and “I” are doubled, enacting the understanding of the machine and at the same time a self-portrait of my interaction.

Identifying New Myths for Convergence and Creative Collaboration in the Age of Digitalia Richard L. Loveless SIGGRAPH 2007: Global Eyes Paper

To assume that it is possible to predict the future of technology innovation beyond the next week, month, or year is sheer folly. To believe that our participation in endless think tanks, conferences, or seminars will shape a consensual vision, one that we all agree may be worth perpetuating, is merely an elitist group exercise in courage. I propose another scenario: that business, educational, and cultural institutions exist as the sum total of the myths they believe about themselves. In this context, myths are not only about who we are, they are essential to the development of all human understanding and belief systems. This practice is not to be confused with acquired situational narcissism, a self-bestowed sense of ingratiation, but a shared belief that the invention of new myths is an on-going design and discovery process unique to all sensing/feeling human beings. Such an enterprise evolves into creation of enlightened and expressive forms through continuous real-time simulation of living and learning in the stacking of moments. The challenge is to prepare individuals to adapt to rapid changes, ones we can’t even imagine, and to prepare to be comfortable living through one’s imagination, and to trust and embrace the inevitable transformations that will challenge future participatory energies.

Deutsch, David. 1997. The Fabric of Reality: The Science of Parallel
Universes – And its Implications. Alan Lane The Penguin Press Inc.
Langer, Suzanne K. 1957. Problems of Art, MacMillan College
Miller, Arthur. Resurrection Blues.
Weiss, Rick. 2007. Advance in slowing light holds technology
benefits, Washington Post, syndicated reprint, Arizona Republic,
January 20, 2007, 32.
Zajonc, Arthur. 1993. Catching the Light: The Entwined History of
Light and the Mind, Bantam Books, Doubleday Publishing Group
Inc. New York.

[View PDF]
Illusion: you can hear, but you can't see. Haein Kang SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

ILLUSION explores the relationship between the body, mind, and machine by taking advantage of the brain-computer interface. It detects whether your consciousness has visual stimuli to produces cadenced sound, an exterior manifestation of the performer’s internal state. When you close your eyes, you can see the world imaged by sounds.

Illusions/Delusions Tim O'Riley SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Sketch / Art Talk

This presentation describes the author’s use of stereoscopic computer imaging procedures to construct artworks that explore the viewer’s relationship to virtual/pictorial space.

[View PDF] computer art and virtual space
Image Quality and Viewer Perception Michael Ester SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema Paper

Improving the quality of digital images can have great impact on information storage and transfer, pushing the feasibility of image databases well beyond existing practical limits. How good do images have to be? Among the considerations for selecting image quality is the extent to which viewers can discriminate among variations in quality. What differences in resolution and dynamic range (bit-depth) can they see? Groups of art historians were asked to rate a series of displayed test images; the results show how participants’ responses compared with the actual range of image quality. Practical implications of viewers’ perceptions are discussed.

  1. For examples, see J. Cash, “Spinning Toward the Future,” Museum News 63, No. 6, 19-22 (August 1985); L. Corti, D. Wilde, U. Parrini, and M. Schmitt, eds., SN/G: Report on Data Processing Projects in Art, 2 vols. (Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore; Los Angeles: The Getty Art History Information Program, 1988).
  2. Musée d’Orsay, The Orsay Museum Audiovisual (information brochure).
  3. For purposes of this study, photographic reproductions, rather than original works of art, were the presumed source for scanning. The direct capture of objects introduces considerable technical complexity, including many new decisions, such as the photographic conditions and lighting, that are nontechnical and relate to content.
  4. P. A. McClung, “Cost Associated with Preservation Microfilming: Results of the Research Libraries Group Study,” Library Resources and Technical Services, (October/December 1986) pp. 363-374.
  5. Although McClung’s study focused on microfilming entire books, she cites the cost and time for individual frames, as is the norm for visual archives, where each image is a separate entity.
  6. Cash [1].
  7. Incremental improvement of image quality through progressive transmission is one approach under review by the CCITT and ISO Joint Photographic Experts Group for transmitting images. Progressive transmission sends a succession of encoded layers that incrementally improve quality levels.
  8. See the classic study by T. S. Huang, “PCM Picture Transmission,” IEEE Spectrum 2 (December 1965) pp. 57-63.
  9. Gerald H. Jacobs, Comparative Color Vision (New York: Academic Press, 1981) Chap. 6.
[View PDF]
Information, Computers and Design Patrick Whitney SIGGRAPH 1984: CAD Show Paper

The Dilemma of the Specific and the General
In the Yucatan peninsula, corn is planted by Indian farmers in the same way it was done hundreds of years ago. The farmer wears a sack filled with seed slung over one shoulder. As he walks the field’s rows, he uses a long stick to make holes in the ground into which he drops seeds. Although the stick is a simple tool, it is not naive. It has features that make it well-suited for its task: it is long enough so the farmer can make the hole without bending to the ground; and, the end of the stick is sharpened to a point to make the hole for the seed.

[View PDF] design and technology
Inhabitat: An Imaginary Ecosystem in a Children’s Science Museum Graham Wakefield and Haru (Hyunkyung) Ji SIGGRAPH 2018: Original Narratives Art Papers Session #1 Paper

Inhabitat is a mixed-reality artwork in which participants become part of an imaginary ecology through three simultaneous perspectives of scale and agency; three distinct ways to see with other eyes. This imaginary world was exhibited at a children’s science museum for ve months, using an interactive projection-augmented sculpture, a large screen and speaker array, and a virtual reality head-mounted display. This paper documents the work’s motivations and design contributions, along with accounts of visitors’ playful engagements and re ections within the complex interconnectivity of an arti cial nature.

1. H. Ji and G. Wake eld. “Biotopes Computanionnels (Computational Biotopes),” in Stream 04: Les Paradoxes du Vivant ( e Paradoxes of the Living) (2017) pp. 304–316.

2. Chris Sugrue, Delicate Boundaries (2007): <http://csugrue.com/delicateboundaries> (accessed January 2018). 3. Everyware, Oasis (2008): <http://everyware.kr/home/portfolio/oasis> (accessed January 2018).
4 S. Reed et al., “Shaping Watersheds Exhibit: An Interactive, Augmented Reality Sandbox for Advancing Earth

Science Education,” American Geophysical Union (AGU) Abstract no. ED34A-01 (2014).
5. SEGA, Eederu Sunaba (2014): <http://edel-sand.sega.jp> (accessed January 2018).
6. A. Rowe and L. Birtles, “Glowing Path nder Bugs: A Natural Haptic 3D Interface for Interacting Intuitively with

Virtual Environments,” Leonardo 43, No. 4, 350–358 (2010).
7. Patricio González Vivo, Efecto Mariposa (2012): <https://vimeo.com/32321634> (accessed January 2018).
8. Although the sand was chosen as the safest product available, some museum sta raised concerns about dust

visible in the projections, and most of the sand was later removed, limiting this interaction.
9. Emergent play across huge scale di erences recalls Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s Sandbox (2010): <www.lozano

-hemmer.com/sandbox.php> (accessed January 2018).

Ink Fall Seph Li SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Narratives and Culture Sketch / Art Talk

Ink・Fall is a digital installation of ink painting of waterfall.
From ancient times, China has a traditional of using ink to draw waterfall paintings. And the core concept of mountain and water paintings is never about accuracy or beauty of a moment. It is about the flowing atmosphere that make Chinese paintings unique. This installation, uses thousands of lines and hundreds of thousands of ink particles, to paint ink paintings on screen. Though expression methods have also changed dramatically in this digital age, what I want to show and communicate is almost the same as the ancient artists do in this piece. When fingers
touch the painting(screen), ink streams will be separated by fingers, particles are also blasted, but the flow of ink continues. At the same time, the sound of koto rises and fused into the background music of birds and water flows harmoniously

Instababy Generator Emi Kusano and Junichi Yamaoka SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

This artwork is an installation that expresses the future in which users can manufacture designer’s babies themselves. You can design, customize and manufacture your baby with your favorite gene on your laptop. A 3D printed child appears from the display, and the child’s face created based on the visitor’s face.

Interaction and Play Florian Rötzer SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Essay

“I prefer the form of seduction for it stems from a mysterious duality/confrontational relationship, an enticing, intense, and covert attraction between the living and the non-living. It is not a form of response, but a challenge, a duel, imbued with an intriguing sense of distance and constant antagonism on which the rules of theme are also based.” – Jean Baudrillard

Reflecting upon the frantic commotion sur­rounding the new media, one can easily gain the impression of a world turned upside down. Natu­rally, there are technologies available today that in the course of evolution have attained a certain de­gree of complexity and perfection offering mind­boggling possibilities not only for the entertainment industry but for the artist as well. However, when we consider the perilously desolate state of computer art, it is difficult to understand why in our so-called post-modern era-inured as we are to the euphoria of technological advances-so much rhetorical and institutional endeavor is be­ing invested in persuading artists to take up tech­nologies that neither they nor their recipients re­ally comprehend. Traditional modernists might, of course, take a more balanced view and contend that a different artistic concept is needed. They may also view that the arts simply have to yield to state-of­the-art technology and its inherent forms of per­ception in order to remain contemporary, or offer viable alternatives to the prevailing forms of application. But occasionally it is difficult to avoid the impression that instead of the artist creating the art, it is the art and the artists that now have to be manufactured for a technology, which has not ar­rived but has made deep inroads into our daily ex­istence. If we exclude musicians and composers, artists have been very reticent in availing them­selves of the computer, in the area of computer graphics, it was the technicians, programmers, and scientists who first submitted computer images as art. Quite the contrary was true in photography, cin­ema, or video, where artists soon seized upon this technology and began developing it in the initial phases without the generous support from the state and patrons of the arts.

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Interactive Wallpaper Muriel Waldvogel and Jeffrey Huang SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time Paper

Interactive Wallpaper represents a new category of digital art. Deeply embedded into our built surroundings, interactive wallpapers exhibit
the following characteristics, blurring the boundaries between decorative art and useful science:
1 . They operate in everyday life
2. They are open
3. They are spatial.
4. They are alive.
Interactive wallpapers combine these primitives into powerful “immaterial” building blocks for creation of future spaces, buildings, cities. In this paper, we present a series of interactive wallpaper prototypes in order to explore how the tectonic and psychological effect of our surroundings can be augmented, subverted, and estranged by animating wallpapers and introducing an interactive, possibly darker dimension into architecture. What happens when traditionally static and innocent wallpapers become alive, get a sense of memory, spatiality, connectivity and randomness, and become part of our everyday lives?

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Bentham to Big Brother, eds. Thomas Levin, Ursula Frohne and P,
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2. Duguid, P., and Seely Brown, J., The Social Life of Information,
Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
3. Grau, 0., Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. Cambridge,
MA MIT Press 2002
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Architecture,” Harvard Business Review, (April 2001); 2001, v. 79 n.
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Scientific American, pp. 94-10, September 1991.

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INTERACTIVITY AND RITUAL: Body Dialogues with Artificial Systems Diana Domingues SIGGRAPH 1999: technOasis Essay

Digital technologies provide dialogues with artificial systems, allowing acquisition and communication of biological signals with electronic databases. As interfaces and computers capture, manage, and transform signals, they generate new forms of life. In my latest interactive installations, bodies repeat behaviours, simulating a sort of ritual or ceremony with responses in real time. Stored data managed by neural networks offer states of unpredictability, and the adaptive capacity system determines the emergence of a “living environment” in self-regeneration. The variables place us within elliptical zones and build up present times in which the actions of the amalgamated body with complex systems enable exchanges in cyberspace. In a psychic and physical exploration of the environment, mixing natural/artificial, analogic/digital, real/virtual, we experience consciousness propagations and think, dream, and understand our human condition enhanced by technologies.

[View PDF] technology, interactive, and interface
Interface as Image: Image Making and Mixed Reality Ian Gwilt SIGGRAPH 2004: Synaesthesia Essay

This paper will explore the use of the graphical user interface as art, product and inspiration, drawing on my own practice as a digital image maker and installation artist, and a theoretical investigation of digital image making in hybrid art practice. As the boundaries and reference points between physical and digitally grounded imagery become less defined, the possible duality and interplay for a com­ bined image space moves towards a seamless self-referencing and continuous activity. A visual feedback loop or strip, where the clues of originality become increasingly hard to differentiate and, perhaps, increasingly irrelevant, a state of “deterritorialisation.”1 Some thought will be given to examining the potential for mapping digitally ground­ ed imagery into both two- and three-dimensional physical space to create a mixed-reality experience and to what can happen when we extract the real-world metaphors from the digital environment and take them back into the physical world. Questions about the trans­ parency of the human/computer interface, and about just how trans­ parent we really want this to be, are also raised. What are we left with when we remove the content from the graphical user interface? What traces of human interaction (from the physical) become evident, and what are the “aid memoirs” we employ to assist us in navigation and colonization of the digital landscape?

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Bolter, J.D. & Gromala, D. (2003). dows and mirrors: Interaction design, digital a and the myth of transparency. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
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Heim, M. (1991). The metaphysics of vi ual reality. In Helsel S. K. & Roth, J.P. (Eds.). Virtual Reality Theory, Practice and Promise, (pp. 27-34). London: Meckler Publishing.
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Lovejoy, M. (1997). Postmode currents – Art and artists in the age of electronic media. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
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[View PDF] hybrid practices, digital image making, and augmented realities
Interface Ecosystem, The Fundamental Unit of Information Age Ecology Andruid Kerne SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery Paper

The Information Age is the period of history in which products and services based on information and knowledge have principal economic value. Information artifacts are implements of use and aesthetic expressions that both reflect and create the ways in which people individually and collectively think and act. Interactive artifacts are designed to engage people in access to and development of knowledge and information. Their human computer interfaces are instances of a broader set of phenomena. Cultural, creative, technological, and everyday frames of reference, spoken languages, economic positions, programming languages, and runtime platforms converge through the lens of the interface nexus. It is necessary to abstract and extend our notion of interface and to contextualize the operation of interfaces amidst dynamic meshworks, in order to address these phenomena.

With regard to life on earth, ecology investigates the web of relations between interdependent organisms and their surroundings. In the Information Age, people, activities, codes, components, and systems form the same kinds of interrelationships. Interfaces are the multidimensional border zones through which these relationships are constituted. Interface ecology investigates the dynamic interactions of media, cultures, and disciplines that flow through interfaces. The semiotic encodings of these wide-reaching systems of representation are their interactions’ building blocks. Interfaces recombine semiotic codes, forming hybrids.

The ecosystems approach brings the perspectives of diverse disciplines to bear on what interfaces are, how they work, and how they can work. Disciplines, and the media, cultural, and epistemological forms to which they apply, are free to relate in meshworks, opening inquiry. No system of representation dominates; none are considered subordinate. Rather, they are interdependent elements, connected by referential flows of interaction.

BARTHES, R. 1972. Mythologies. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux.

BAUDRILLARD, J. 1981. For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. New York: Telos.

DE LANDA, M. 1997. A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York: Zone Books.

EVANS, F. 1956. Ecosystem as the Fundamental Unit of Ecology. Science 123: 1127-1128.

GEERTZ, C. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York, Basic Books.

JEREMIJENKO, N. 1995. Database Politics and Social Simulations. tech90s. walkerart.org/nj/transcript/nj_ 04. html.

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KERNE, A. 2000. CollageMachine: An Interactive Agent of Web Recombination. Leonardo volume 3, no. 5, pp. 347-350. Nov 2000.

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[View PDF] ecosystem and information
Internet Hybrids and the New Aesthetic of Worldwide Interactive Events Eduardo Kac SIGGRAPH 1996: The Bridge Essay

This essay discusses interactive art events realized on the Internet in conjunction with other electronic media, such as television, radio, telephones, and telerobotics. The essay includes references to material that can be immediately accessed on the Internet. The reader is invited to read by the glow of the CRT, letting digital strokes carry him or her from one country to another.

[View PDF] interactive and technology
Introduction to Unsettled Artifacts Paula Gaetano Adi SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America Essay

The motivation for the 2017 Art Gallery was, in fact, not only to examine the current state of art, science, and technology, but also to return a sense of “agency” to these technological artifacts and to help us recognize that we all make the choices that create the future. Therefore, convinced of the power of the poetics of technological speculation, and with the intention of mapping the ground on which we can imagine alternative futures, the Art Gallery traveled south in order to exhibit works of art produced outside the traditional centers of industrial and technological development, by artists living and working in Latin America.

Artifacts are the objects that we (humans) make and use. They are products of human activity, yet they continuously shape us. They frame the ways we act in the world, as well as the ways we think about the world. But technological artifacts have another property: they illuminate possible worlds. They not only can describe our “real and constructed” present (and past), but also allow us to speculate about our future, while embodying the anxieties of our own human, nonhuman, and post-human existence. Particularly, when in the hands of artists and designers,
technology has been the ultimate ingredient for materializing our deepest utopian and dystopian dreams; it has always been the element that initiated debates and thoughtful reflections about the worlds we might wish to inhabit—or elude.

For the past 35 years, the SIGGRAPH Art Gallery has presented technological and scientific artifacts produced by artists from around the world and has witnessed the evolution of technological development and the transformation of cultural production that it has influenced. Since the early 1980s, SIGGRAPH has been one of the few venues to consistently exhibit speculative artifacts for critical inquiry brought about computer technology. So, one could argue that a historical analysis of the Art Gallery can indeed expose the anticipatory nature of art in helping us to imagine new worlds.

The motivation for the 2017 Art Gallery was, in fact, not only to examine the current state of art, science, and technology, but also to return a sense of “agency” to these technological artifacts and to help us recognize that we all make the choices that create the future. Therefore, convinced of the power of the poetics of technological speculation, and with the intention of mapping the ground on which we can imagine alternative futures, the Art Gallery traveled south in order to
exhibit works of art produced outside the traditional centers of industrial and technological development, by artists living and working in Latin America.

Uncertain. Agitated. Discontented. Disobedient. Unstable. Troubled. The Latin American
“artifact” has been, above all, an “unsettled” object of study: other, minor, peripheral, mestizo, hybrid, magic, anthropophagic, syncretic, cosmic, postcolonial, decolonial, and so on. It is enough to see its various characterizations in recent decades to prove the impossibility of reducing the Latin American artifact to a single, homogeneous identity—simply because the idea of Latin America as a geohistoric category is in itself an “unsettled” concept [1]. However, and despite the contradictions that the idea of Latin America embodies, it allows us to consider technology-based artistic practices that have been underrepresented, excluded, or ignored in the hegemonic narratives of technological development and to share new knowledge and ideas about how Latin American artists create, adapt, and use technology within a rich cultural context shaped by long histories of imperialism, colonization, and the asymmetries of globalization [2].

Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America is, then, an attempt to recognize the value of a plural world of arts and sciences and to reclaim art’s longing for new social narratives, new forms of sociability, and new images of the possible at a time in which the so-called “global” technologies play a central role. Shifting our focus to the non-Western world in the context of the largest international conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques is a way to acknowledge that technology “acts” and “speaks” [3], and that it remains a contested and performative arena used by artists to critically engage our everyday lives.

The works selected for the Art Gallery represent only a small sample of the vast and diverse creative practices developed in Latin America. They do not pretend to be a survey but a focused critical consideration of 10 contemporary artworks using a disparate array of digital technologies and computational media, from bioart and robotics, to software simulation and VR; from performance and screen-based work, to sound installations and 3D-printed sculptures.

Mexican artist Gilberto Esparza has created a hybrid music synthesizer and sound device that cleans polluted water. The BioSoNot 1.2 makes use of microbial fuel cell technology to produce electricity, generate sound, and improve the quality of water. This bio-instrument is part ofEsparza’s longstanding trajectory using recycled electronics and microbial life to create symbiotic systems that propose alternative forms of energy while questioning the impact of humans upon the environment. Likewise, Milpa Polímera, by Mexican artists Marcela Armas and Arcángelo
Constantini, is also a hybrid of sorts; but unlike Esparza’s work, this installation presents an artificial and futile crop-growing system in which life will never be able to grow. Part seeding machine, part 3D printer, this work is inspired by the conflicting relationship between the market-driven economy of corn and its deep symbolic and cultural values in Mexico. The installation consists of a tractor that swivels in a closed cycle while repeatedly 3D-printing infertile maize seeds made out of PLA, a thermoplastic derived mostly from genetically modified maize starch. The Andean Pavilion, by Ecuadorian artist Paul Rosero Contreras, also uses 3D-printing technology to create a series of geologically inspired sculptures that capture the vibrations of four active volcanoes in South America. Working as a field geologist, the artist used custom software and hardware to interpret the immaterial seismic activity of the volcanoes into
three-dimensional matter in order to poetically reflect on the vital power of material forms and the ability of natural nonhuman forces to shape the anthropocene.

Blurring the boundaries between human, animal, and machine, the Echolocalizator, by Colombian artist Hamilton Mestizo, is a device created to transcend our human modes of perception and to become part of a cybernetic-hybrid system. The Echolocalizator is a wearable sonar headset that deprives the users of sight while forcing them to experience a virtualized reality guided by sound waves and echoes. Octópodos Sisíficos (Sisyphean Octopods), by Argentine artists Mariela Yeregui and Miguel Grassi, is a series of six “futile” robots whose only goal is to
carry small screens that reveal their own technological animality. Essentially passive, these robots are not able to detect the environment or to immediately react to it; they merely crawl around the gallery space, calling into question the nature of their existence, and with that, our
own expectations of an “intelligent” machine.

Brazilian duo Gisela Motta and Leandro Lima created Anti-Horário (Counterclockwise), a digital wall clock that attempts to express the anxieties engendered by the experience of time and duration. A disorienting video, the clock’s face represents the earth, while its hands are
humanized—a child represents the minutes, an adult couple the hour. An endless loop and a philosophical proposition on the passage of time, the cycle of life, and our brief duration on earth.

Cuban artist Rodolfo Peraza takes a similar poetic license to create a paradoxical immersive environment inside different architectures of control. His work JailHead.com is an online virtual reality environment in which the viewer is able to navigate the abandoned Cuban Presidio
Modelo, constructed as the ultimate panopticon prison for disciplinary surveillance. A tactical intervention using the internet’s inherent monitoring technology and videogames’ potential to create highly realistic fictional worlds, JailHead.com submerges us in a provocative and stifling embodied experience generated by modern artifacts utilized for social control and engineering.

Chilean artist Christian Oyarzún creates a different sort of immersive sensorial experience, one shaped by the signal transduction of sound into light. His drumCircle[] is a set of eight autonomous machines, each consisting of a den-den pellet drum and an impact floodlight reflector, that trigger an aleatory behavior of loud and rhythmic shadows and sounds. In Dispersiones (Dispersions), Argentine artist Leo Nuñez also uses makeshift technical devices to transform the gallery into an immersive environment comprised of about 400 relays distributed
in the space. The work is a sonic interactive matrix that utilizes the simple binary behavior of these electromagnetic switches to generate a complex system activated by the presence of the viewer.

Lastly, the Astrovandalistas transnational collective (Leslie García, Rodrigo Frenk, Thiago Hersen, and Andrés Padilla Domene) will open an office in the Art Gallery where they will engrave “futureglyphs” into rocks and debris collected from the Greater Los Angeles area. In a
new iteration of their ongoing project Imaginario Inverso (Reverse Imaginary), the artists will exhibit their disruptive laser machine and collaborate with SIGGRAPH attendees in writing predictions about the future of LA, SIGGRAPH, the geopolitics of technology development, and other speculative micronarratives.

The history of digital and media art in Latin America is as long as that of the United States and Europe. Therefore, as a supplement to this introduction, we have included an essay by art historian and scholar María Fernández, who briefly traces this history, providing some points of entry to better understand the interrelations of Latin American art and modern technologies. In and of itself, Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America is only a provisional crack in the history of the SIGGRAPH conference. It isn’t a comprehensive synthesis or theoretical overview, but an invitation to consider technology as an artifact for critical inquiry. It is an attempt to reconsider the conditions and forms of making beyond the canon;
uncover multiple global narratives; analyze other omissions; reimagine possible worlds; and catalyze new and productive conversations across the Americas.

1. See W. Mignolo, e Idea of Latin America (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). On Latin American contemporary art, see L. Camnitzer, On Art, Artists, Latin America and Other Utopias, R. Weiss, ed. (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 2009); G. Mosquera, “Against Latin American Art,” in Contemporary Art in Latin America (London: Black Dog, 2010) pp. 12–22.

2. For an excellent study on these conditions, see E. Median, I. Marques, and C. Holmes, Beyond Imported Magic: Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in Latin America (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014).

3. For more on the politics of technological artifacts, see variously B. Latour, “Where Are the Missing Masses? e Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts,” in W.E. Bijker and J. Law, eds., Shaping Technology/Building Society (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992); P. Verbeek and P. Vermaas, “Technological Artifacts,” in J.K. Olsen, S. Pedersen, and V. Hendricks, eds., A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology (West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); L. Winner, “Do Artifacts Have Politics?” in e Whale and the Reactor (Chicago, Ill./London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986).

Inverse-rendering Based Analysis of the Fine Illumination Effects in the Salvator Mundi Marco Liang, Shuang Zhao, and Michael T. Goodrich SIGGRAPH 2020: Think Beyond Culture and History Analytics Paper

We have provided an inverse-rendering analysis that provides plausible optical explanations for the fine illumination effects in the Salvator Mundi. Our analysis supports Kemp’s main argument for authenticating the painting as Leonardo’s based on its optical accuracy and Leonardo’s study of optics.

AI/Machine Learning
Is the Age of Expertise Over? Michael Masucci SIGGRAPH 2003: CG03: Computer Graphics 2003 Essay

As I read journalists’ reports about the decline in confidence in many financial institutions, the troubles in modern education, and the failure of diplomacy to solve international problems, I am faced with the question: Is the age of expertise over?

[View PDF] history and society
It is Interactive—but is it Art? Erkki Huhtamo SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture Essay

“The possibilities of egalitarian, more democratic, constructive forms offering new kinds of interaction, knowledge, and understanding may well be enhanced by the novel capabilities of the new technologies. They will, more than ever before, have to be struggled for.” – Andy Darley

The Myth of Interactivity
“Well, my next thing is going to be something interactive … ” For some years now, this has been a stock answer in interviews with artists, and not only those who already work with electronic and digital technologies. Indeed, “interactive art” seems well on its way to becoming the art form of the 1990s. Yet one shouldn’t let its present visibility delude oneself. Although contemporary interactive art may seem “groundbreaking,” the ground had already been grubbed by such movements as Fluxus and E.A.T. (Ex­periments in Art and Technology) in the 1960s, as well as by a great variety of “postmodern” strategies, emphasizing recycling, deliberate confusion between “the original” and “the copy,” and aiming at reposi­tioning, sometimes to the point of reconstituting, the traditional art audience.

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izzy bombus and the story of flight Sandy Lowrance SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Sitting: The Seat for Virtual Travel Sketch / Art Talk

izzy bombus and the story of flight is a prototype CD-ROM consisting of an animated story with associated games and educational activities for children ages four through seven. Izzy, a young bumblebee, discovers that according to the laws of aerodynamics, the bumblebee cannot fly. Dismayed but undeterred, izzy collects implements from a kitchen drawer to build a flying machine and asks her viewers for help with the construction. With izzy in the cockpit, the viewer pushes the launch button, the countdown begins, the smoke swirls … lift-off!

[View PDF] animation, game, and interactive CD-ROM
Journey through the centre_01 Keith Brown SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Art from Physics, Art from Biology Sketch / Art Talk

My digital sculptures are born out the direct manipulation of geometry in a multi‐dimensional cyber space where material, as we understand it, does not exist. In the cyber environment 3D entities may be encouraged to behave in ways not achievable through physical means, being located in an area that exists beyond the imagination and everyday experience. These virtual sculptures, made manifest through 3D printing technology, are grounded in a material form and act as a vehicle which transports us to this strange and wonderful “other place” where unpredictable and surprising events occur. It is as if modelling space with light, in an
environment where physics play no part, freeing form from material constraints, and transcending our given understanding of how objects behave in the world.

3D, cyberspace, and virtual sculpture
KIMA - A Holographic Telepresence Environment Based on Cymatic Principles Oliver Gingrich, Alain Renaud, and Eugenia Emets SIGGRAPH 2013: XYZN: Scale Paper

KIMA is a holographic surround-sound installation that visualizes telepresence as both a phonetic and a synaesthetic phenomenon. The performance piece is based on the physical conditions of cymatics-the study of physically visible sound wave patterns. Two environments, a quad surround and a holographic interface, build the framework of a telematic experience that illustrates communication as wave forms while focusing on the relationship between sound and matter.

1. Sermon, Paul, Telematic Dreaming, 1992.

2. Keane, Tina, Couch, 1998.

3. Sommerer, Christa and Laurent Mignonneau, Interactive Plant Growing, 1992-1997.

4. Jarman, Ruth and Joe Gerhardt, 20Hz, accessed at <semiconduccorfilms.com/roothoHzhoHz.htm> on II October, 2012.

5. Hein, Jeppe, Invisible Labyrinth, accessed at <jeppehein.net/pages/project_id.php?path=works&id=125> on II August, 2012.

6. Watzlawick, Paul et al., Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes (New York: Norton, 1969).

7. Assocreation, Bump, accessed at <www.assocreation.com/project/bump/>.

8. Magruder, Michael Takeo, Data Flower (2010), accessed at <www.takeo.org/nspace/nso34/>.

9. Sykes, Lewis, The Augmented Tonoscope, Manchester Institute for Research and Innovation in Art and Design, 20II.

10. Stuart, J .K., and R.C. Colwell, “The Calculation of Chladni Patterns,” journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. II, No. 1, 147-151 (1939).

II. Elmore, William C. and Mark A. Heald, Physics of Waves (New York: Dover Publications, 1985).

12. <paulbourke.net>.

13. Pellegrino, Ronald, The Electronic Arts of Sound and Light (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983).

14. Lombard, Matthew and Theresa Ditton, ”At the Heart oflt All: The Concept of Presence,” journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 3, No. 2 (1997).

15. <phd.lewissykes.info>.

16. Cycling ’74, <www.cycling74.com>, accessed on II September, 2012.

17. Open Sound Control, <www.opensoundcontrol.org>.

18. Caceres, Juan-Pablo and Chris Chafe, “Jack Trip: Under the Hood of an Engine for Network Audio,” International Computer Music Conference Proceedings (ICMC 2009) (Ann Arbor, MI: Mpublishing, 2009).

19. Reas, Casey et al., Processing: A Programming Handbook for Visual Designers and Artists (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007).

20. Lloyd, Seth, Programming the Universe: A Quantum Computer Scientist Takes on the Cosmos (New York: Vintage, 2006).

21. Watzlawick, Paul et al., Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of lnteractional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes (New York: Norton, 1969).

holography, telepresence, and cymatics
Knowing Together Rosalie Yu and Charles Berret SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design 3D Print, Design, Installations Paper

This project tested a novel approach to photogrammetry where a group of participants collectively gather images for 3D models. We tested this method in a workshop setting, with the resulting models yielding a set of seven resin 3D-printed sculptures suspended in acrylic domes, preserving visual artifacts of the creation process.

Don’t Miss: Knowing Together, a set of seven resin 3D-printed sculptures suspended in acrylic domes showing in the Art Gallery, South Hall K.

Langjiao - Beinan Road Shin-Yu Wu, Pey-Chwen Lin, Deng-Teng Shih, and Ching-Hsaing Hu SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

In Syuhai, where I grew up, there is an old trail that connects the “Puyuma to Longkiau”. My hometown and the area surrounding it is home to a large population of indigenous people, and their ancestral spirit is the hundred-pace pit viper. Therefore, I used a 360 degree camera to capture the the left and right sides of the trail, and converted the image to simulate a half-human, half-snake perspective. With these images, I invite viewers to put on the VR device, and together enter the imaginary world of a hundred-pace pit viper traversing this ancient trail. This work also discusses the human perspective, where we use our eyes to see the world in front of us, whereas the sounds we hear with our ears come from the two sides of us. In this work, viewers can switch from the human perspective to see the world from two sides through the eyes of the hundred-pace viper, and experience the wonder of the merging of your auditory and visual perception.

This psychological landscape created using the VR device not only takes us back along the path once taken by the ancestral spirit of the indigenous people, it also allows us to experience the blending of the real and virtual world.

Language and the Early Cinema Rudolf Arnheim SIGGRAPH 1990: Digital Image-Digital Cinema Paper

The following short excerpt from Film [1] is all but unknown to the readers of the English version of the book as well as to those of the other translations. The edition of 1957, titled Film As Art [2], on which all these translations are based, was prepared by the author in the conviction that only the essential sections, dealing with the nature of the visual medium, were still relevant whereas much of what had been observed in the infancy days of the sound film was no longer worth saying. A complete English version of the German original of 1932 had been published in 1933 by Faber and Faber in London in a translation by L. M. Sieveking and Ian F. D. Morrow but has vanished of course long ago even from most libraries. The following few pages, slightly retouched by the author, will give today’s readers a taste of the principles that governed discussions of the media in those early days.

  1. Rudolf Arnheim, Film, Ian F. D. Morrow and
    L. M. Sieve king, trans. (London: Faber and Faber, 1933).
  2. Rudolf Arnheim, Film As Art (London: Faber
    and Faber, 1957).
[View PDF]
Learning from Weaving for Digital Fabrication in Architecture Rizal Muslimin SIGGRAPH 2010: TouchPoint: Haptic Exchange Between Digits Paper

This project restructures weaving performance in architecture by analyzing the tacit knowledge of traditional weavers through perceptual study and converting it into an explicit rule in computational design. Three implementations with different materials show the advantages of using computational weaving that combines traditional principles with today’s digital (CAD/CAM) tools to develop affordable fabrication techniques.

Learning to See. You Are What You See. Memo Akten, Rebecca Fiebrink, and Mick Grierson SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design Spaces, Territories, Perception Paper

The work utilizes a novel method in “performing” visual, animated content — with an almost photographic visual style — using deep learning. It demonstrates both the collaborative potential of AI, as well as the inherent biases reflected and amplified in artificial neural networks, and perhaps even our own neural networks.

Lenticular Waterwheels: Simultaneous Kinetic and Embedded Animation Scott Hessels SIGGRAPH 2017: Unsettled Artifacts: Technological Speculations from Latin America Paper

After decades as a novelty, lenticular technology has resurfaced in compelling large-scale projects. Without any required energy, the medium offers stereography without glasses and frame animation without electronics. A kinetic artwork installed in a remote river in the French mountains broke from the technology’s previous restrictions of static and flat display, recalculated the print mathematics for a curved surface, and explored narrative structures for a moving image on a moving display. This paper documents how the sculpture used custom steel fabrication, site-specific energy, and revised lens calculation to present a previously unexplored hybrid of animation.

1. W. Funk, “History of Autostereoscopic Cinema,” Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging, Vol. 8288 (2012).

2. D. Sandin, E. Sandor, W. Cunnally, M. Resch, T. DeFanti, and M. Brown, “Computer-generative Barrier-strip Autostereography,” SPIE Three-Dimensional Visualization and Display Technologies, Vol. 1083 (1989).

3. Studio Roosegaarde, About Beyond (2016), <https://www.studioroosegaarde.net/project/beyond/>, accessed on 29 January 2017.

4. G. Legrady, Day & Night (2016), <http://georgelegrady.com/>, accessed on 29 January 2017.

5. J. Kim, Between Film, Video, and the Digital: Hybrid Moving Images in the Post-Media Age (New York: Bloomsbury, 2016) p. 49.

6. J. Nicholson, “The Third Screen as Cultural Form in North America,” in B. Crow, K. Sawchuk, and M. Longford, eds., The Wireless Spectrum: The Politics, Practices, and Poetics of Mobile Media (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2010) pp. 77–94.

Life After Life Robert Lisek SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

The tension between biology and political economy brings the following questions: is an individual an owner of its own body? does owning constitute its property? and under which conditions? what are the methods for authorising and selling organs, cells or DNA? under which conditions can companies manage biological material?

Light and Dark Visions Stephen Wilson SIGGRAPH 1993: Machine Culture The Relationship of Cultural Theory to Art That Uses Emerging Technologies Paper

Critical theory and cultural studies are increasingly being used to understand the function of the arts in contemporary technology-dominated, postmodern culture. This essay examines the relevance of these analyses to the work of artists who use emerging technologies. The first section reviews core concepts that are useful for understanding art/technology linkages from postmodernist, post-industrialist, and post-structuralist writers. Concepts discussed include the rejection of the modernist idea of a single dominant cultural stream, the demarginalization of diverse voices, the increasing importance of information and the impact of mediated image and representation on ideology and behavior, and the emphasis on deconstructing the language systems and meta-narratives that shape culture.

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Light Pattern: Writing Code with Photographs Daniel Temkin SIGGRAPH 2015: Hybrid Craft Paper

This paper explores the author’s Light Pattern project, a programming language where code is written with photographs rather than text. Light Pattern explores programming languages as the most direct conduit between human thinking and machine logic. It emphasizes the nuance, tone and personal style inherent in all code. It also creates an algorithmic photography structured by the programs one writes, but not ultimately computer-generated. The paper looks at connections to both hobbyist/hacker culture (specifically esolangs) and to art-historical impulses and movements such as Fluxus and Oulipo.

1. Nick Montfort, “Obfuscated Code,” in Software Studies, ed. Matthew Fuller, 196.

2. Ben Olmstead, “Interview with Ben Olmstead,” esoteric.codes, published 12/16/2014, <http://esoteric.codes/post/101675489813/interview-with-ben-olmstead>.

3. ais523, “Interview with ais523,” esoteric.codes, published 2/28/2011. <http://esoteric.codes/post/84454956003/interview-with-ais523>.

4. David Morgan-Mar, “Interiew with David Morgan-Mar,” esoteric.codes, published 02/10/2015, <http://esoteric.codes/post/110647356808/interview-with-david-morgan-mar>.

5. Jean Lescure, “A Brief History of the Oulipo” in Oulipo: A Primer of Potential Literature, ed. and trans. Warren F. Motte Jr, p. 37.

6. Zach Budgor, “Arbitrary Subjects Turn into Kaleidoscopic Imagery with Light Pattern,” Kill Screen Daily, published 08/06/2014, <http://killscreendaily.com/articles/kaleidoscopic-coding-programming-language-light-pattern/>.

7. George Brecht, “Three Lamp Events,” The Fluxus Performance Workbook, ed. Ken Friedman et al.,
p. 23. Performance Research e-publication.

8. David Morgan-Mar, “Piet,” last updated 5/28/2014, retrieved 4/3/2015, <www.dangermouse.net/esoteric/piet.html>.

9. Chris Pressey, “Interview with Chris Pressey,” to be published on esoteric.codes.

10. Chris Pressey, “The Aesthetics of Esolangs,” published 6/17/2013, retrieved 1/20/2015, <http://catseye.tc/node/The_Aesthetics_of_Esolangs>.

Light Storm PLUS He-Lin Luo, I-Chun Chen, and Yi-Ping Hung SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Music makes Visual Art / Visual Art makes Music Sketch / Art Talk

In the analogue world, electronic signals are based on waveforms. Transmissions of sound waves, light waves, and water waves, all use waveforms to transmit vital information directly related to energy distribution, making waveforms an integral part of our daily lives. The art work Light Storm PLUS uses power generated by waveforms to control the motor of a high-speed rotation device transmitting electroluminescent (EL) cold light. The artwork replicates the shape of wave forms in the real world, thus the light waveforms fluctuate with same rhythm as they do in the analog world. Through interacting with the artwork, people sense that their bodies are key to the transmission of data, as they become active components in the feedback loop, but also become part of the mechanism of transmission.

LightWing II Uwe Rieger and Yinan Liu SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

LightWing II creates a mysterious sensation of tactile data. In this interactive installation, a kinetic construction is augmented with stereoscopic 3D projections and spatial sound. A light touch sets the delicate wing-like structure into a rotational oscillation and enables the visitor to navigate through holographic spaces and responsive narratives.

Living Laboratories: Making and Curating Interactive Art Lizzie Muller and Ernest Edmonds SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

This paper describes the development of laboratory concepts in the making and curating of interactive art, in which the exhibition becomes a site for collaboration between curators, artists, and audiences. It describes Beta_space, an experimental public venue that seeks to realise the concept of the exhibition as living laboratory
through the participatory qualities of interactive computer-based art. The paper places this initiative within an emerging phenomenon of hybrid production and exhibition spaces. It argues that the evolution of such concepts has been hampered by the continued distinctions,
within traditional cultural institutions, among art, science and technology, object and experience, creation and consumption.

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Locative Media: Urban Landscapes and Pervasive Technology Within Art Michael Salmond, Hasan Elahi, Mike Phillips, and Carlos Rosas SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Panel / Roundtable

Locative media: the utilization of pervasive, portable, networked, location-aware computing devices that allow for user-defined map­ping and artistic intervention within urban geographies, transmuting them into an experimental canvas. This panel examines the current or future state of locative media practice, establishing an artistic and theoretical discourse on pervasive computing. The advent of an al­ways-on, always-accessible information sphere creates an enhanced reality space that enables connected artists to work within different spaces and geographies, creating work that is simultaneously global and local. Can we shift the balance of power, redistributing media control so as to create an open space where public art, social proj­ects, and free expression can flourish?

Ludology: From Representation to Simulation Gonzalo Frasca SIGGRAPH 2002: Art Gallery Paper

Most of the current studies of the creative potential of computer games have been done through tools designed for narrative media (literary theory, narratology, film theory). Several attempts have been made by both academics and designers to create “interactive narratives” that would allow players to experience the qualities of narrative while being able to interact with the environment, characters, and events in the “story.” Nevertheless, authors have so far failed to provide a compelling example of “interactive fiction.” Brenda Laurel, a long-time advocate of this genre, recently described it as “a hypothetical beast in the mythology of computing, an elusive unicorn we can imagine but have yet to capture.” [Laurel 2001]

In this paper I argue, following the work of such theorists as Espen Aarseth and Markku Eskelinen, that narrative is not the best paradigm for understanding not only computer games but also cybernetic art and toys, simply because they do not rely on traditional representation but on simulation.

By simulation, I mean an alternative form of describing and understanding reality that is based on the modeling of systems. My semiotic approach to simulation is close to the one developed by computer science’s simulation theory, but it differs in that its goal is not necessarily predicting behaviors. Rather, I view it as an alternative representational form that opens a new set of rhetorical possibilities that stress system behavior and user experimentation.

By comparing the similitude and differences between simulation and representation, I will provide a theoretical framework that will allow us to better comprehend the process behind the interpretation of such cybernetic systems as toys, cyberarts, traditional games, and computer games. My ultimate goal is to contribute to the understanding of the rhetorical characteristics of these simulational media.

AARSETH, E. 1998. Aporia and Epiphany in Doom and The Speaking Clock: Temporality in Ergodic Art. In Marie-Laure Ryan (ed.) Cyberspace Textuality. Bloomington and Indianapolis: University of Indiana Press, 1-14.

BOAL, A. 1998. Theatre of the Oppressed. New York: TCG.

BREMOND, C. 1973. Logique du récit. Paris: Seuil.

CAILLOIS, R. 1967. Les jeux et les hommes. Le masque et le vertige. Paris: Gallimard, Cher.

ESKELINEN, M. 2001. The gaming situation. In Gamestudies #1. cmc.ui b.no/gamestudies/0101/eskeli nen/

JOHNSON-LAID, P. 1995. Simulation Model Design and Execution: Building Digital Worlds. New York: Prentice Hall.

JOHNSON-LAID, P. 1997. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

LANDOW, G. P. 1992. Hypertext: The convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

LAUREL, B. 2000. Utopian Entrepreneur. Cambridge: MIT Press.

LAUREL, B. 1993. Computers as Theatre. London: Addison-Wesley.

MANOVICH, L. 2001. The language of new media. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

MURRAY, J. 1997. Hamlet on the Holodeck. New York: Free Press.

PIAGET, J. 1991. La formación del símbolo en el niño. Imitación, juego y sueño. Imagen y representación. Buenos Aires: Fonda de Cultura Económica.

PRINCE, G. 1987. The Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.

SAFRA, J. E. 2002. Ed. Britannica 2002. Standard CD-ROM version.

WRIGHT, W. 1995. Sim City 2000. Electronic Arts. 1995.

[View PDF] computer science and game
Luminescent Tentacles Akira Nakayasu SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Art from Physics, Art from Biology Sketch / Art Talk

The Luminescent Tentacles is an interactive art that is inspired by waving tentacles of sea anemones under the sea. The 256 shape-memory alloy actuators react to hand movement and the top of the actuator softly glows like a bioluminescent organism. Each actuator is actuated by three shape-memory alloy wires. The actuator can bend in six directions by the combination of three currents. The control application interacts with fluid dynamics to realize a kinetic representation like a water ripple. The sound reaction to hand movement creates music. The Luminescent Tentacles provides a comfortable interaction like interacting with sea anemones.

Machine Hallucination - Latent Study II Refik Anadol SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Machine Hallucinations – Latent Study II is part of an ongoing synthetic reality collection that explores the relationship between memory and dreams, recognition and perception.

Making Caricatures with Morphing Ergun Akleman SIGGRAPH 1997: Ongoings Bending: Corn, Face, and Gender for Social Provocation Sketch / Art Talk

The talent of a caricaturist is important when using traditional media such as pencil and paper. Since traditional media are not interactive, caricatur­ists must complete the caricatures in their minds before starting to draw. Since this ability does not exist in most people, it has always been considered some sort of magical talent of a gifted few.

[View PDF] digital imagery and procedure
Making Visible the Invisible: A Data-Driven Media Artwork, in Continuous Operation for 14 Years George Legrady and Rama Hoetzlein SIGGRAPH 2019: Proliferating Possibilities: Speculative Futures in Art and Design Digital Tools, Archives, Memories Paper

Making Visible the Invisible is a six-screen, dynamic data visualization artwork at the Seattle Public Library. It visualizes patrons’ library checkouts received by the hour through four different animations to give a sense of community interests. The artwork was activated in September 2005 for a 10-year operation and was extended.

Malleable Environments and the Pursuit of Spatial Justice in the Bronx Melanie Crean SIGGRAPH 2014: Acting in Translation Paper

A design team in the Hunts Point neighborhood of the South Bronx used methodologies of performance and collaborative, location-based storytelling to contend with the effects of urban spatial injustice in the community. Ideation via a series of participatory performances led to creation of a mobile cinema application as the starting point for public, location-based cinema walks. The application accepts usergenerated content, acting as a new form of generative monument to the neighborhood as it evolves. The project exemplifies how installing situated technologies for an embodied form of participation can help translate local concerns to outside audiences, in this case using a metaphorical, locative media platform to discuss the evolving nature of environmental discrimination, over-incarceration, and urban spatial justice in New York City.

1. Blast Theory, Rider Spoke, <www.blasttheory.co.uk/projects/rider-spoke> (2010), accessed 2013.

2. Wood, Denis, Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas (Los Angeles: Siglio, 2010), 1–25.

3. New York City Department of City Planning, Bronx Community District 2, <www.nyc.gov/html/ dcp/pdf/lucds/bx2profile.pdf>, accessed August 2008.

4. Wills, Kerry, “Murders in the Bronx Spike,” New York Daily News, <www.nydailynews.com/newyork/murders-bronx-spike-20-people-dead-50-shot-year-2010-article-1.1001079> (January 5, 2012).

5. New York University Institute for Civil Infrastructure Systems, “Asthma and Air Pollution in the South Bronx,” <www.icisnyu.org/south_bronx/AsthmaandAirPollution.html>, accessed January 2013.

6. Juvenile Justice Project, “JJP Calls on City to Close the Notorious Spofford Youth Jail,” <www. correctionalassociation.org/news/juvenile-justice-project-calls-on-city-to-close-the-notorious-spoffordyouth-jail> (April 1, 2003).

7. ArtPlace America, “Principles of Creative Placemaking,” <www.artplaceamerica.org/articles/ principles-of-creative-placemaking>, accessed December 2013.

8. Helguera, Pablo, Education for Socially Engaged Art (New York: Jorge Pinto Books, 2011), 11.

9. Kwon, Miwon, One Place after Another: Site-Specific Art and Locational Identity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).

10. Wodiczko, Krzysztof, interviewed by Melanie Crean, <shapeofchange.com/blog> (2010).

11. Rancière, Jacques, The Emancipated Spectator (London: Verso, 2009), 22.

12. Brown, Stuart, and Christopher Vaughan, Play: How It Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul (New York: Penguin, 2009).

13. Salen Tekinbas, Katie, and Eric Zimmerman, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), 304.

14. Boal, Augusto, Games for Actors and Non-Actors (London: Routledge, 1992).

15. Boyd, Andrew, Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution (New York: OR Books, 2012), 210.

16. Djajadiningrat, J.P., W.W. Gaver, and J.W. Frens, “Interaction Relabelling and Extreme Characters: Methods for Exploring Aesthetic Interactions,” DIS ’00: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (New York: ACM, 2000), 66–71.

17. Benford, Steve, et al., “Uncle Roy All Around You: Implicating the City in a Location-Based Performance,” Proceedings of ACM Advanced Computer Entertainment (ACE 2004), Singapore (New York: ACM, 2004).

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19. Kjeldskov, Jesper, and Jeni Paay, “Augmenting the City with Fiction: Fictional Requirements for Mobile Guides,” Mobile Interaction with the Real World 2007 / 5th Workshop on HCI in Mobile Guides (Singapore: ACM, 2007), 41–55.

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21. Lozano-Hemmer, Rafael, “Alien Relationships with Public Space,” TransUrbanism (Rotterdam: NAI Publishers, 2002), 155.

22. Meadows, Donella, Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System (Hartland, VT: The Sustainability Institute, 1999), 3.

23. Austin, J.L., How to Do Things with Words, second edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975).

Mantra Hwayong Jung SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

Project Mantra is digital panorama video that represents hyper-realistic landscape with collapse of human interaction expressed through movement and code generated visual images. This videos deal with perception, especially with aesthetic Korean traditional dances and the way recreate the landscape through software and simulation. In reviving and re-contextualizing traditional into digital scenes and contemporaneity, to directly combine a culturally deeply embedded art form with the tools of digitalization, and dominates the contemporary culture leading to a new art form. A traditional dance called Seungmu, which performs a human desire to overcome his suffering, presents dynamic and yet delicate movements, and its encounter with computer codes creates randomly but meticulously calculated images – a beauty created by human and images made by machine. Inside of endless communication between them, a new experiential form of vision and sound will be developed and provided.

Mapping A Sensibility: Computer lmaging Catherine Richards SIGGRAPH 1983: Art Show Essay

“The work of art,” as the surrealist André Breton said, “is valuable only so far as it is vibrated by the reflexes of the future.” These “reflexes of the future” have introduced, since the early 1900s, increasingly powerful visual technologies. To rephrase André Breton — in certain critical epochs, art anticipates effects that are only fully realized by newly emerging technology and new art forms.

[View PDF] computer imaging
Mapping Art's Escape From the Traps of Technology Jon Ippolito SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time Essay

The 2005 SIGGRAPH jury was more than a chance to survey the digital art scene with a roomful of passionate but collegial comrades. It was also an opportunity to reflect on the role, for better or worse, that technology is playing in the production and exhibition of digital
artwork. More than any of my fellow jurors, I think I was particularly conscious of the stereotype that many artists, critics, and curators attach to exhibitions of art with a technological focus. According to this perception, the SIGGRAPH Art Gallery is less art exhibition than display showroom, where technicians show off the latest Maya or Illustrator special effect rather than pushing the boundaries of art.

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Marking Space: on Spatial Representation in Contemporary Visual Culture Joseph Tekippe SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

The following paper looks at different ways that space is being dealt with in contemporary visual culture, and attempts to link these evolving modes of spatial representation to emerging technologies, particularly GPS, GIS, and openGL, as well as to suggest links between the depiction and thinking about space in the current moment with similar or related explorations from the history of late-twentieth century avant-garde artistic practice. While this paper is necessarily more suggestive than exhaustive, I’ve made an attempt to choose contemporary visual practices and practitioners that I felt could stand as representatives for larger tendencies in their respective domains. This paper originated as a somewhat personal document, an attempt to situate my recent art practice within a larger historical and cultural context. As such, at times the links between these divergent practices must be made through the sensibility of the author.

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Mathematics As an Artistic-Generative Principle Herbert W. Franke SIGGRAPH 1989: Art Show Paper

The author defines a mathematical discipline that is devoted to the generation of artistic images. The practical implementation of the underlying theory is possible today with the aid of computer graphics systems.

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Medallions Joe Takayama SIGGRAPH Asia 2016: Mediated Aesthetics Art from Physics, Art from Biology Sketch / Art Talk

This work is a series of 3D-printed wall plaques featuring ornate shapes generated procedurally. The main purpose of this project is to sublimate a traditional beauty found in decorative ornaments into a modern algorithmic art by using a combination of procedural approach in Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) and 3D-printing technology which has been growing rapidly. Each medallion was generated by using metaballs which are a kind of modeling method in CGI. A drawing algorithm for metaballs was modified and optimized for generating ornate relief-like objects in this project. Also, regular-polygonal shapes were used for the process of density
calculation in drawing metaballs. Generated patterns were converted into 3D models, and the models were 3D-printed finally

Meditative Process In New Media Art: An Affective Possibility Of Digital Media In The Art Making Process Su Hyun Nam SIGGRAPH Asia 2015: Life on Earth Paper

This paper explores the affective potentials in digital media as looking into the process of art making. Contemplating the unique experience of artists with technology, this paper suggests alternative ways of building a relationship between digital media and human bodies, considering the gap as an open space for a metaphysical freedom.

Memory Rich Garments: Body-Based Displays Joanna Maria Berzowska and Paul Yarin SIGGRAPH 2005: Threading Time Paper

This paper describes conceptual and technical prototypes of reactive body-worn artifacts that display their history of use and communicate
physical (or embodied) memory. This work concentrates on garments that reflect more subtle, playful, or poetic aspects of our identity and
history. The pieces described here are part of a larger research project called Memory Rich Clothing. A variety of input and output methodologies are explored to sense and display traces of physical memory, raising the question: What exactly do we want to remember?

1. Life Caching. www.trendwatching.com/trends/life_caching.htm
2. Hill, W. C., Hollan, J. History-enriched digital objects: Prototypes
and Policy Issues. The Information Society 10: (1994) 139-145.
3. Schutte, A.A. P atina: layering a history-of-use on digital objects.
Thesis Document for the Master of Science, Media Arts and
Sciences Program (1998).
4. Yarin, P., & Ishii, H., TouchCounters: Designing Interactive
Electronic Labels for Physical Containers, in Proceedings of
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI ’99),
(Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA, May 15-20, 1999), ACM Press, 362-
5. Levin, G. & Yarin, P. Bringing Sketching Tools to Keychain
Computers with an Acceleration-Based Interface. Proceedings of

[View PDF] reactive garments, wearable computing, electronic textiles, and physical memory
Meros Dylan Moore SIGGRAPH 2008: Slow Art Sketch / Art Talk
Meta-visual/media/space - algorithmic "intersection," the new aspect of media art exhibition Tomoe Moriyama SIGGRAPH 2006: Intersections Essay

When we start to think about “vision,” imaging, and our ways of perceiving the outside world, we must be clear about what we mean. Even in Japan, where imaging technologies play a central role, there are misunderstandings about what “imaging” is and what comes under its umbrella. By “imaging,” I mean the creation of images through any medium that is not simply manual: those that can be traced, reflected, photographed, reproduced, and projected. The term is not restricted to animation, video, film, or other means of creating pictures in motion. “Imaging” encompasses shadow play, magic lantern, anamorphoses, and all the processes of visualization. Since the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography (TMMP) opened as a center for photography and other visual media, it has been important to discuss what “imaging” means.

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Metaphoric Networks in "Lexia to Perplexia" N. Katherine Hayles SIGGRAPH 2001: n-space Essay

As leading theorists and practitioners such as Marvin Minsky, Daniel Hillis and Brian Antwell Smith have been telling us, computers are much more than hardware and software.’ In their most general form, computers are environments of varying scope, from objects that sit on desktops to networks spanning the globe. Indeed, in Edward Fredkin’s interpretation, computational processes ultimately generate the fabric of the universe.’ It comes as no surprise, then, to find researchers arguing that computation is fundamentally altering the ways in which humans conceive of themselves and their relations to others. There are of course many approaches to this issue, from sociological studies to human factor analysis. Among these approaches are artistic works that tell new stories about the formation of human subjects, instantiating these stories in images as well as words. To explore this systemic shift, I will take as my tutor text Talan Memmott’s “Lexia to Perplexia.”‘ In this complexly coded work, human subjectivity is depicted as intimately entwined with computer technologies.

1. I am grateful to Nicholas Gessler for help with technical details of my analysis, Carol Wald and Michael Fadden for help in researching sources; and Marjorie Luesebrink for consultation and ideas.

2. Minsky, M. (1985). Society of mind. New York: Simon and Schuster; Hillis, D. (1999). The pattem 011 the stone. New York: Perseus Books; Cantwell Smith, B. (1998). 011 the origi11 of objects. Cambridge MA: Bradford Books.

3. Fredkin, E. (1990). Digital mechanics: An information process based on reversible universal cellular automata'” Physica D, 45 (1990): 254-70.

4. Memmott, T. (2001). Lexia to perplexia: hypermediation/ideoscope. URL: http:www.memmott.org/talan/dac200l/index.html.

5. The effect of cybernetic circuits on narrative patterns is explored in more detail in Chapter 2 ofN. Katherine Hayles. (1999). How we became posthuman: Virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature, and informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

6. Bukatman, S. (1993). Terminal identity: The virtual subject in postmodern science fiction. Durham: Duke University Press.

7. Memmott, T. Delimited meshings. (2001). URL: www.memmott.org/talan/ dac2001/delimited_meshings/meshings/O.html.

8. Mitchell, W. T. J. (1995). Picture theory: Essays on verbal and visual presentation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

9. Email communication, Talan Memmott, Nov. 14, 2000.

10. Email communication, Talan Memmott, November 14, 2000.

11. Memmott, T. (2001). Delimited Meshings. age11cy!applia11ce!apparatus. URL: memmott:org/falan/dac2001/memmott/memmott.html.

[View PDF] environments and technology
Metascape: Villers Bretonneux Andrew Yip SIGGRAPH Asia 2019: Deep Dreaming Sketch / Art Talk

Metascape: Villers Bretonneux is an immersive, interactive memoryscape experienced in first-person perspective, that simulates 72 hours in real time of the 1918 First World War Second Battle of Villers Bretonneux. The work relies on multiple forms of spatial and memory reconstruction, both driven by algorithmic processes.

Mind-Body Dualism Nhung Walsh, Alfredo Salazar-Caro, and William Robertson SIGGRAPH Asia 2017: Mind-Body Dualism Sketch / Art Talk

Mind-Body Dualism examines the topic of existence as a physical being and digital being simultaneously, adding nuance to the Cartesian idea of separation of mind and body and proposing yet a 3rd separation: The virtual body.

MobiSpray: Mobile Phone as Virtual Spray Can for Painting BIG Anytime Anywhere on Anything Jurgen Scheible and Timo Ojala SIGGRAPH 2009: BioLogic: A Natural History of Digital Life Paper

This paper presents MobiSpray, a novel interactive art tool for creating ubiquitous ephemeral digital art. The mobile phone is employed as a virtual spray can to spray dabs of digital paint onto the physical environment via large-scale projections. The gesture-based control of the mobile phone provides a natural pointing mechanism for the virtual spray can. Experiences from extensive field use around the world testify in favor of a successful design. Most importantly, MobiSpray liberates and empowers the artist to change the environment via large-scale artistic expressions.

1. Blinkenlights: http://www.blinkenlights.net/.

2. Land art: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_art.

3. Environmental art: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_art.

4. Christo and Jeanne-Claude: www.christojeanneclaude.net/.

5. J. Maeda, Creative Code (London: Thames & Hudson, 2004) 121.

6. Z. Lieberman, Drawn installation (2006): http://www.thesystemis.com/drawnInstallation/.

7. J. Foote, D. Kimber, “Remote interactive graffiti,” Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2004 (2004).

8. J. Scheible, T. Ojala, P. Caulton, “MobiToss: A novel gesture based interface for creating and sharing mobile multimedia art on large public displays,” Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2008, 957-960 (2008).

9. P. Garner, O. Rashid, P. Coulton, R. Edwards, “The Mobile Phone as a Digital SprayCan,” Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology 2006, 1-7 (2006).

10. WiiSpray: http://www.wiispray.com/.

11. M. Rackham, “UR SPACE,” Filter Magazine, Vol. 67, No. 4 (2008).

12. Claudio Sinatti: http://www.claudiosinatti.com/blog/?cat=13.

13. Krzysztof Wodiczko: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/wodiczko/clip2.html.

14. Graffiti Research Lab: http://graffitiresearchlab.com/.

15. Tag tool: http://www.tagtool.org/.

16. Banksy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banksy.

17. T. Kindberg, M. Chalmers, E. Paulos, “Urban Computing,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 6, No. 3, 18- 20 (2007).

18. J. Sheridan, A. Dix, S. Lock, “Understanding Interaction in Ubiquitous Guerrilla Performances in Playful Arenas,” People and Computers XVIII – Design for Life Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction 2004, 3-18 (2004).

19. Digital Fringe: http://digitalfringe.com.au/?q=node/25.

20. Friedensreich Hundertwasser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundertwasser.

21. J. Scheible, V. Tuulos, Mobile Python: Rapid Prototyping of Applications on the Mobile Platform (Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

22. Pygame – python game development: http://www.pygame.org.

23. Nintendo Wii remote: http://wii.nintendo.com.

24. Graffiti Research Lab: http://graffitiresearchlab.com/.

25. K. Ryokai, S. Marti, H. Ishii, “I/O Brush: Drawing with Everyday Objects as Ink,” Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2004, 303-310 (2004).

26. A. Clark, “Minds in space”: http://www.indiana.edu/~cogdev/labwork/clark.doc.

27. Banksy, Wall and Piece (London: Century, 2006) 237.

28. P. Dourish, Where The Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001) 55.

29. H.G. Nelson, E. Stolterman, The Design Way: Intentional Change in an Unpredictable World: Foundations and Fundamentals of Design Competence (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications, 2003).

30. D.H. Parker, The Principles Of Aesthetics (La Vergne: Lightning Source Inc, 2003).

31. Flash mob: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flash_mob.

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